Joseph Pawlik
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Marine chemical ecology

Giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta

Marine invertebrate larval biology

Photographic guide to sponges of the Caribbean

BIO 318: Invertebrate Zoology

BIO 501: Science as a Profession

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 Below are links to PDFs of reprints of journal articles.  These are for internal use by UNCW faculty and students.  By clicking on these files, the user accepts all responsibility for their reproduction and dissemination.

172.   Scarpato, S., Teta, R., De Ciccio, P., Borrelli, F., Pawlik, J.R., Costantino, V., Mangoni, A.  2023. Molecular networking revealed unique UV-absorbing phospholipids: Favilipids from the marine sponge Clathria faviformis. Marine Drugs, 21(2) 58 DOI: 10.3390/md21020058

171.   Conti-Jerpe, I.E., Pawlik, J.R., Finelli, C.M. 2022. Evidence for trophic niche partitioning among three temperate gorgonian octocorals. Coral Reefs, DOI: 10.1007/s00338-022-02279-y

170.   Pawlik, J.R., Armstrong, R.A., Farrington, S., Reed, J. Rivero-Calle, S., Singh, H., Walker, B.K., White, J. 2022. Comparison of recent survey techniques for estimating benthic cover on Caribbean mesophotic reefs. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 686: 201-211  DOI: 10.3354/meps1401

169.   Pawlik, J.R., Manker, D.C., Evans, J.W., Erwin, P.M., López-Legentil, S. 2021. Unusual morphotypes of the giant barrel sponge off the coast of Barbados. Diversity, 13: 663 DOI: 10.3390/d13120663

168.   Wu, Q., Eisenhardt, N., Shaw Holbert, S., Pawlik, J.R., Kucklick, J.R., Vetter, W. 2021. Naturally occurring organobromide compounds (OBCs) including polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins in the marine sponge Hyrtios proteus from The Bahamas. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 172 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112872

167.   Olinger, L.K., Strangman, W.K., McMurray, S.E., Pawlik, J.R.  2021. Sponges with microbial symbionts transform dissolved organic matter and take up organohalides. Frontiers in Marine Science, DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2021.665789

166.   Evans, J.S., López-Legentil, S, Pawlik, J.R., Turnbull, I.G., Erwin, P.M.  2021. Molecular detection and microbiome differentiation of two cryptic lineages of giant barrel sponges from Conch Reef, Florida Keys. Coral Reefs, DOI: 10.1007/s00338-021-02089-8

165.   Scarpato, S., Teta, R., Della Sala, G., Pawlik, J.R., Costantino, V., Mangoni, A.  2020. New tricks with an old sponge: Feature-based molecular networking led to fast identification of new stylissamide L from Stylissa caribica. Marine Drugs, 18(9), 443;

164.   Pawllik, J.R., McMurray, S.E., Mead, R. Strangman, W., Gaitan Daza, L. 2020. Dining on DOM: Stimulus for the origin of metazoan life? Preprints, DOI: 10.20944/preprints202008.0302.v1.

163.   Pawlik, J.R., McMurray, S.E. 2020. The emerging ecological and biogeochemical importance of sponges on coral reefs. Annual Review of Marine Science, 12: 315-337.

162.   Olinger, L.K., Scott, A.R., McMurray, S.E., Pawlik, J.R. 2019. Growth estimates of Caribbean reef sponges on a shipwreck using 3D photogrammetry. Scientific Reports, 9: 19398.

161.   Gantt, S.E., McMurray, S.E., Stubler A.D., Finelli, C.M., Pawlik, J.R., Erwin, P.M. 2019. Testing the relationship between microbiome composition and flux of carbon and nutrients in Caribbean coral reef sponges. Microbiome, 7: 124

160.   Scott, A.R., Battista, T.A., Blum, J.E., Noren, L.N., Pawlik, J.R. 2019.  Patterns of benthic cover with depth on Caribbean mesophotic reefs. Coral Reefs, 38: 961-972.

159.   Pawlik, J.R., Scott, A.R. 2019.  Sponge density increases with depth throughout the Caribbean: Comment.  Ecosphere, 10(4):e.02689

158.   Wooster, M.K., McMurray, S.E., Pawlik, J.R., Moran, X.A., Berumen, M.L. 2019. Feeding and respiration by giant barrel sponges across a gradient of food abundance in the Red Sea. Limnology and Oceanography, 64:1790-1801

157.    Esposito, G., Teta, R., Della Sala, G., Pawlik, J.R., Mangoni, A., Costantino, V.  2018. Isolation of smenopyrone, a bis-ɣ-pyrone polypropionate from the Caribbean sponge Smenospongia aureaMarine Drugs, 16: 285  DOI:10.3390/md160285.

156.   Deignan, L.K., Pawlik, J.R., Erwin, P.M.  2018. Agelas wasting syndrome alters prokaryotic symbiont communities of the Caribbean brown tube sponge, Agelas tubulata. Microbial Ecology, 76: 459-466.

155.   Scott, A.R., Pawlik, J.R.  2019. A review of the sponge increase hypothesis for Caribbean mesophotic reefs. Marine Biodiversity, 49: 1073-1083.

154.   Deignan, L.K, Pawlik, J.R., López-Legentil, S. 2018. Evidence for shifting genetic structure among Caribbean giant barrel sponges in the Florida Keys. Marine Biology 165:106  DOI: 10.1007/s00227-018-3355-6

153.   Pawlik, J.R., Loh, T.-L., McMurray S.E. 2018. A review of bottom-up vs. top-down control of sponges on Caribbean fore-reefs: What's old, what's new, and future directions. PeerJ  6:e4343  DOI  10.7717/peerj.4343

152.   McMurray, S.E., Stubler, A.D., Erwin, P.M., Finelli, C.M., Pawlik, J.R. 2018. A test of the sponge-loop hypothesis for emergent Caribbean reef sponges. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 588: 1-14. DOI 10.3354/meps12466.  Feature article!!

151.   de Goeij, J.M., Lesser, M.P., Pawlik, J.R. 2017. Nutrient fluxes and ecological functions of coral reef sponges in a changing ocean. Chapter 8 in Climate Change, Ocean Acidification and Sponges, pp. 373-410, Carballo, J.L., Bell, J.J.(eds.) Springer. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-59008-0_8

150.  McMurray, S.E., Pawlik, J.R., Finelli, C. M. 2017. Demography alters carbon flux for a dominant benthic suspension feeder, the giant barrel sponge, on Conch Reef, Florida Keys. Functional Ecology, 31: 2188-2198. DOI 10.1111/1365-2435.12908

149.  Della Sala, G., Teta, R., Esposito, G., Pawlik, J.R., Mangoni, A., Costantino, V. 2017. Zeamide, a glycosylinositol phosphorylceramide with a novel core Arap(1β→6)Ins motif from the marine sponge Svenzea zeai. Molecules, 22: 1455-1465  doi: 10.3390/molecues22091455

148.  Hanmer, J., White, J.W., Pawlik, J.R.  2017. Application of diet theory reveals context-dependent foraging preferences in an herbivorous coral reef fish. Oecologia, 184: 127-137.  DOI 10.1007/s00442-017-3855-y

147.  Marino, C., Pawlik, J.R., López-Legentil, S., Erwin, P.  2017. Latitudinal variation in the microbiome of the sponge Ircinia campana correlates with host haplotype but not anti-predatory chemical defense. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 565: 53-66.

146. Wooster, M.K., Marty, M.J., Pawlik, J.R.  2017. Defense by association: Sponge-eating fishes alter the small scale distribution of Caribbean reef sponges. Marine Ecology, 38   DOI:10.1111/maec.12410.

145.  Deignan, L.K. Pawlik, J.R. 2016. Demographics of the Caribbean brown tube sponge Agelas tubulata on Conch Reef, Florida Keys, and a description of Agelas Wasting Syndrome (AWS). Proceedings of the 13th International Coral Reef Symposium, Honolulu: pp. 72-84.

144.  Pawlik, J.R., Loh, T.L. 2016. Biogeographical homogeneity of Caribbean coral reef benthos. Journal of Biogeography, 44: 950-952. doi: 10.1111/jbi.12858.

143.  Marty, M.J., Blum, J.E., Pawlik, J.R.  2016No accounting for taste: Palatability of variably defended Caribbean sponge species is unrelated to predator abundance. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 485: 57-64.

142.  Pawlik, J.R., Burkepile, D.E., Vega Thurber, R. 2016. A vicious circle? Altered carbon and nutrient cycling may explain the low resilience of Caribbean coral reefs. BioScience, 66: 470-476 doi:10.1093/biosci/biw047.

         Read Prof. Peter Sale's blog about the "vicious circle hypothesis" here:

141.  Esposito, G., Della Sala, G., Teta, R., Caso, A., Bourguet-Kondraki, M-L., Pawlik, J.R., Mangoni, A., Costantino, V. 2016. Chlorinated thiazole-containing polyketide-peptides from the Caribbean sponge Smenospongia conulosa: Structure elucidation on microgram scale. European Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2016: 2871-2875, DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201600370.

140.  McMurray, S.E., Johnson, Z.I., Hunt, D.E., Pawlik, J.R., Finelli, C.M. 2016. Selective feeding by the giant barrel sponge enhances foraging efficiency. Limnology and Oceanography, 61: 1271-1286. doi: 10.1002/lno.10287.

139.  Pawlik, J.R., 2015. Overfishing aids sponges, hurts corals on Caribbean reefs. Alert Diver, 31(4): 22-23.

138.  Puyana, M., Pawlik, J.R., Blum, J. and Fenical, W. 2015. Metabolite variability in Caribbean sponges of the genus Aplysina. Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy, 25: 592-599.

137.  McMurray, S.E., Finelli, C.M. and Pawlik, J.R. 2015. Population dynamics of giant barrel sponges on Florida coral reefs. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 473: 73-80  DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2015.08.007

136.  Loh, T.-L., McMurray, S.E., Henkel, T.P., Vicente, J. and Pawlik, J.R. 2015. Indirect effects of overfishing on Caribbean reefs: sponges overgrow reef-building corals. PeerJ, 3: e901  DOI: 10.7717/peerj.901

               Article featured in PeerJ Press Release, click HERE

135.  Pawlik, J.R., McMurray, S.E., Erwin, P., Zea, S. 2015. No evidence for food limitation of Caribbean reef sponges: Reply to Slattery & Lesser (2015). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 527: 281-284.

134.  Zea, S., Henkel, T.P. and Pawlik, J.R. 2015. The sponge guide: Interactive photographic online guide to the identification of Caribbean sponges. Reef Encounter, 30: 25-28.

133.  Pawlik, J.R. and Deignan, L.K. 2015. Cowries graze verongid sponges on Caribbean reefs. Coral Reefs, 34: 663.

132.  Marty, M.J. and Pawlik, J.R. 2015. A fish-feeding laboratory bioassay to assess the antipredatory activity of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms.  Journal of Visualized Experiments, 95: e52429; DOI: 10.3791/52429

             Article PDF available HERE; HD video available HERE.

131.  Pawlik, J.R., McMurray, S.E., Erwin, P. and Zea, S. 2015. A review of evidence for food-limitation of sponges on Caribbean reefs.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 519: 265-283.

130.  Deignan, L.K. and Pawlik, J.R. 2015Perilous proximity: Does the Janzen-Connell hypothesis explain the distribution of giant barrel sponges on a Florida coral reef?. Coral Reefs, 34: 561-567.

129.  McMurray, S.E., Pawlik, J.R. and Finelli, C.M. 2014. Trait-mediated ecosystem impacts: How morphology and size affect pumping rates of the Caribbean giant barrel sponge. Aquatic Biology, 23: 1-13   FEATURE ARTICLE!

128.  Vicente, J., Zea, S., Powell, R., Pawlik, J.R. and Hill, R.T.  2014. New epizooic symbioses between sponges of the genera Plakortis and Xestospongia in cryptic habitats of the Caribbean. Marine Biology, 161:2803-2818

127.  Gloeckner, V., Wehrl, M., Moitinho-Silva, L., Gernert, C., Schupp, P., Pawlik, J.R. Lindquist, N.L., Erpenbeck, D., Wörheide, G. and Hentschel, U. 2014. The HMA-LMA dichotomy revisited: an electron microscopical survey of 56 sponge species. Biological Bulletin, 227: 78-88.

126.  Henkel, T.H., and Pawlik, J.R. 2014. Cleaning mutualist or parasite?  Classifying the association between the brittlestar Ophiothrix lineata and the Caribbean reef sponge Callyspongia vaginalis. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 454: 42-58.

            Video of brittlestars eating sponge larvae at:

125.  Loh, T.-L., and Pawlik, J.R. 2014.  Chemical defenses and resource trade-offs structure sponge communities on Caribbean coral reefs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 111: 4151-4156.  Cover article!  Includes video.

            NSF coverage at

124.  Pawlik, J.R., Amsler, C.D., Ritson-Williams, R., McClintock, J.B., Baker, B.J., and Paul, V.J. 2013. Marine chemical ecology: A science born of scuba. Pages 53-69 in: Research and Discoveries: The Revolution of Science through Scuba. Edited by: Lang, M.A., Marinelli, R.L., Roberts,S.J., and Taylor, P.R.  Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences, Vol. 39. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press. 258 pp.

123.  Pawlik, J.R., Loh, T.-L., McMurray, S.E., and Finelli, C.M.  2013.  Sponge communities on Caribbean coral reefs are structured by factors that are top-down, not bottom-up. PLoS One 8(5): e62573. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062573.

        ***3 minute video about this paper awarded an honorable mention in the Ocean 180 Video Challenge, Feb 2014:

        ***Accompanying video shows French and Grey angelfishes eating grey tube sponges at Conch Reef, the same location as the reported research:

122.  Miller, A.M., and Pawlik, J.R. 2013.  Do coral reef fish learn to avoid unpalatable prey using visual cues? Animal Behaviour, 85: 339-347.

121.  Loh, T.-L., and Pawlik, J.R. 2012 Specificity of larval settlement of the Caribbean Orange Icing Sponge Mycale laevis: A mutualistic response? Invertebrate Biology, 131: 155-164.

120.  Loh, T.-L., and Pawlik, J.R. 2012.  Friend or foe? No evidence that association with the sponge Mycale laevis provides a benefit to corals of the genus Montastraea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 465: 111-117.

119.  A new sponge ecology.  2012.  International Innovation, June issue, p.37.

118.  Redwoods of the reef.  2012.  International Innovation, June issue, pp.38-39.

      ***Accompanying video shows the size of barrel sponges, as well as their importance as habitat for fishes and invertebrates:

117.  Angermeier, H., Glöckner, V., Pawlik, J.R., Lindquist, N.L., and Hentschel, U. 2012.  Sponge white patch disease affecting the Caribbean sponge Amphimedon compressa. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 99:95-102.

116.  Pawlik, J.R.  2012.  Antipredatory defensive roles of natural products from marine invertebrates.  Chapter 12, pages 677-710 in Handbook of Marine Natural Products.  Edited by: Fattorusso, E., Gerwick, W.H., Taglialatela-Scafati, O. Springer Science, NY.

115.  Loh, T.-L., López-Legentil, S., Song, B., and Pawlik, J.R.  2012 Phenotypic variability in the Caribbean Orange Icing sponge Mycale laevis (Demospongiae: Poecilosclerida). Hydrobiologia, 687: 205-217.

114.  Hines, D.E. and Pawlik, J.R.  2012 Assessing the antipredatory defensive strategies of Caribbean non-scleractinian zoantharians (Cnidaria): Is the sting the only thing?  Marine Biology, 159:389-398.

113.  Echevarria, M, Naar, J.P., Tomas, C. and Pawlik, J.R.  2011.  Effects of Karenia brevis on clearance rates and bioaccumulation of brevetoxins in benthic suspension feeding invertebrates.  Aquatic Toxicology, 106-107:85-94.

112.  Pawlik, J.R.  2011.  The chemical ecology of sponges on Caribbean reefs: Natural products shape natural systems. BioScience, 61: 888-898.   Cover article!

111.  McMurray, S.E., Blum, J.E., Leichter, J.J. and Pawlik, J.R.  2011.  Bleaching of the giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta in the Florida Keys. Limnology and Oceanography, 56: 2243-2250.

110.  López-Legentil, S., Song, B., Bosch, M., Pawlik, J.R. and Turon X. 2011 Cyanobacterial diversity and a new Acaryochloris-like symbiont from Bahamian sea squirts. PLoS ONE, 6(8): e23938.

109.  Henkel, T.P. and Pawlik, J.R.  2011.  Host specialization of an obligate sponge-dwelling brittlestar. Aquatic Biology, 12: 37-46.

108.  Leong, W. and Pawlik, J.R.  2011 Comparison of reproductive patterns among 7 Caribbean sponge species does not reveal a resource trade-off with chemical defenses. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 401: 80-84.

107.  Angermeier, H., Kamke, J., Abdelmohsen, U., Krohne, G., Pawlik, J., Lindquist, N., Hentschel, U.  2011.  The pathology of Sponge Orange Band disease affecting the Caribbean barrel sponge Xestospongia muta. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 75: 218-230.

106.  López-Legentil, S., Erwin, P.M., Pawlik, J.R., and Song, B.K. 2010 Effects of sponge bleaching on ammonia oxidizing Archaea: Distribution and relative expression of ammonia monooxygenase genes associated with the barrel sponge Xestospongia muta. Microbial Ecology, 60: 561-571.

105.  Morinaka, B., Pawlik, J.R.,and Molinski, T.F.  2010.  Amaranzoles B-F, imidazole-2-carboxy steroids from the marine sponge Phorbas amaranthus. C24-N- and C24-O-analogues from a divergent oxidative biosynthesis.  Journal of Organic Chemistry, 75: 2453-2460.   Cover article!

104.  Leong, W. and Pawlik, J.R. 2010.  Evidence of a resource trade-off between growth and chemical defenses among Caribbean coral reef sponges. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 406: 71-78.

103.  Leong, W. and Pawlik, J.R. 2010.  Fragments or propagules?  Reproductive trade-offs among Callyspongia spp. from Florida coral reefs. Oikos, 119: 1417-1422.

102.  López-Legentil, S., Henkel, T.P., Erwin, P.M., Loh, T.-L., and Pawlik, J.R. 2010.  Phenotypic plasticity in the Caribbean sponge Callyspongia vaginalis (Porifera: Haplosclerida). Scientia Marina, 74: 445-453.

101.  McMurray, S.E., Henkel, T.P., and Pawlik, J.R. 2010.  Demographics of increasing populations of the giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta in the Florida Keys. Ecology, 91:560-570

       Appendicies: Ecological Archives E091-040-A1-A10

       Reefs of the future -- Random Sample 2010Science, 327: 253.

100.  Bickmeyer, U., Grube, A., Klings, K.-W.,  Pawlik, J.R. and Köck, M.  2010.  Siphonodictyal B1 from a marine sponge increases intracellular calcium levels comparable to the Ca2+ - ATPase (SERCA) inhibitor thapsigargin. Marine Biotechnology, 12: 267-272.

99.  Lee, O.O., Chui, P.Y., Wong, Y.H., Pawlik, J.R., and Qian, P-Y.  2009.  Evidence for vertical transmission of bacterial symbionts from adult to embryo in the Caribbean sponge Svenzea zeai.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75: 6147-6156.

98.   Zea, S., Henkel, T.P., and Pawlik, J.R.  2009.  The Sponge Guide: a picture guide to Caribbean sponges.  Available online at  Accessed on: 2009-06-16.

97.   Loh, T.-L and Pawlik, J.R.  2009.  Bitten down to size: Fish predation determines growth form of the Caribbean coral reef sponge Mycale laevis. Journal of  Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 374: 45-50. 

96.   Ein-Gil, N., Ilan, M., Carmeli, S., Smith, G.W., Pawlik, J.R., and Yarden, O.  2009.  Presence of Aspergillus sydowii, a pathogen of gorgonian sea fans in the marine sponge Spongia obscura. ISME Journal, 3: 752-755.

95.   Morinaka, B. I., Pawlik, J.R. and Molinski, T.F.  2009.  Amaroxocanes A and B: Sulfated dimeric sterols defend the Caribbean coral reef sponge Phorbas amaranthus from fish predators. Journal of Natural Products, 72: 259-264. 

94.   López-Legentil, S. and Pawlik, J.R.  2009.  Genetic structure of the Caribbean giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta using the I3-M11 partition of COI. Coral Reefs, 28: 157-165.

93.  McMurray, S.E. and Pawlik, J.R.  2009.  A novel technique for the reattachment of large coral reef sponges. Restoration Ecology, 17: 192-195. Cover photo feature article!! 

        Reef Repair -- Research Highlights 2009.  Nature, 459: 12.

92.  Pawlik, J.R., Henkel, T.P., McMurray, S.E., López-Legentil, S., Loh, T.-L., Rohde, S.  2008.  Patterns of sponge growth and recruitment on a shipwreck corroborate chemical defense resource trade-off.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 368: 137-143.

91.  McMurray, S.E., Blum, J.E., and Pawlik, J.R.  2008.  Redwood of the reef: growth and age of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta in the Florida Keys. Marine Biology, 155:159-171.

       Redwoods of the Reef -- Random Sample 2008Science, 321: 19.

90.  Nagelkerken, I., Blaber, S.J.M., Bouillon, S., Green, P., Haywood, M., Kirton, L.G., Meynecke, J.-O., Pawlik, J.R., Penrose, H.M., Sasekumar, A., Somerfield, P.J.  2008.  The habitat function of mangroves for terrestrial and marine fauna: A review. Aquatic Botany, 89: 155-185.

89.  López-Legentil, S., Song, B.K., McMurray, S.E. and Pawlik, J.R. 2008. Bleaching and stress in coral reef ecosystems: hsp70 expression by the giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta.  Molecular Ecology, 17: 1840-1849.

88.  Meredith, T.L., Cowart, J.D., Henkel, T. and Pawlik, J.R.  2007. The polychaete Cirriformia punctata is chemically defended against generalist coral reef predators.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 353: 198-202.

87.  Grube, A., Assmann, M., Lichte, E., Sasse, F., Pawlik, J.R. and Köck, M.  2007. Bioactive metabolites from the sponge Aka coralliphagum.  Journal of Natural Products, 70: 504-509.

86.  Pawlik,J.R., McMurray, S.E. and Henkel, T.P.  2007.  Abiotic factors control sponge ecology in Florida mangroves.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 339: 93-98.

85.  Lee, O.O., Yang, L.H., Li, X., Pawlik, J.R., Qian, P.Y.  2007.  Surface bacterial community, fatty acid profile, and antifouling activity of two congeneric sponges from Hong Kong and the Bahamas.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 339: 25-40.

84.  Pawlik, J.R.  2007. Cast iron beauty: an antique J.W. Fiske Aquarium. Tropical Fish Hobbyist, 55: 111-114.

83.  Epifanio, R., Maia, L.F., Pawlik, J.R. and Fenical W.  2007.  Antipredatory secosterols from the octocoral Pseudopterogorgia americana.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 329: 307-310.

82.  Odate, S. and Pawlik, J.R  2007.  The role of vanadium in the chemical defense of the solitary tunicate, Phallusia nigra. Journal of Chemical Ecology  33: 643-654.

81.  Pawlik, J.R., Steindler, L., Henkel, T.P., Beer, S., and Ilan, M.  2007.  Chemical warfare on coral reefs: sponge metabolites differentially affect coral symbiosis in situ. Limnology and Oceanography  52: 907-911.

80.  Qian, P.Y., Dobretsov, S., Dahms, H.U. and Pawlik, J.R.  2006.  Comparison of the antifouling activities and microbial diversity of two congeneric sponges (Callyspongia spp.) from Hong Kong and the Bahamas. Marine Ecology Progress Series  324: 151-165.

79.  Cowart, J.D., Henkel, T.P., McMurray, S.E., and Pawlik, J.R.  2006.  Sponge orange band (SOB): a pathogenic-like condition of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta.  Coral Reefs 25: 513.

78.  Lau, S.C.K., Tsoi, M.M.Y., Li, X.C., Plakhotnikova, I., Dobretsov, S.V., Wu, M., Wong, P.K., Pawlik, J.R., and Qian, P.Y.  2006.  Description of Fabibacter halotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. and Roseivirga spongocola sp. nov. and reclassification of [Marinicola] seohaensis as Roseiviga seohaensis comb. nov.. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 56: 1059-1065.

77.  Lau, S.C.K., Tsoi, M.M.Y., Li, X.C., Plakhotnikova, I., Dobretsov, S.V., Wong, P.K., Pawlik, J.R., and Qian, P.Y. 2006.  Stenothermobacter spongiae gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from a marine sponge in the Bahamas, and emended description of Nonlabens tegetincola.   International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 56: 181-185.

  76.  Kelly, S.R., Garo, E., Jensen, P.R., Fenical, W. and Pawlik, J.R. 2005.  Effects of sponge secondary metabolites on bacterial surface colonization.  Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 40: 191-203.

  75.  Engel, S. and Pawlik, J.R.  2005.  Interactions among Florida sponges. II. Mangrove habitats.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 303: 145-152.

  74.  Engel, S. and Pawlik, J.R.  2005.  Interactions among Florida sponges. I. Reef habitats.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 303: 133-144.

 73.  Lau, S.C.K., Tsoi, M.M.Y., Li, X.C., Plakhotnikova, I., Dobretsov, S.V., Wong, P.K., Pawlik, J.R. and Qian,  P.Y.  2005.   Nonlabens tegetincola gen. nov, sp. nov., a new member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from a microbial mat in a subtropical estuary. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 55: 2279-2283.

  72.  Jones, A.C., Blum, J.E. and Pawlik, J.R.  2005.  Testing for defensive synergy in Caribbean sponges: Bad taste or glass spicules?.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 322: 67-81.

  71.  Walters, K.D. and Pawlik, J.R.  2005.  Is there a trade-off between wound-healing and chemical defenses among Caribbean reef sponges?  Integrative and Comparative Biology , 45: 352-358.

  70.  Lau, S.C.K., Tsoi, M.M.Y., Li, X.C., Plakhotnikova, I. , Dobretsov, S.V., Lau, K.W.J., Wu, M., Wong, P.K., Pawlik, J.R. and Qian,  P.Y.  2005.  Winogradskyella poriferorum sp. nov., a novel member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from a sponge in the Bahamas . International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 55: 1589-1592.

  69.  Henkel, T.P., and Pawlik, J.R.  2005.  Habitat use by sponge-dwelling brittlestars.  Marine Biology 146: 301-313.

  68.  Masuno, M.N., Pawlik, J.R., and Molinski, T.F.  2004.  Phorbasterones A-D, cytotoxic nor-ring A steroids from the sponge Phorbas amaranthus.  Journal of Natural Products 67: 731-733.

  67.  Pawlik, J.R.  2003.  Sorting sponges.  (Book review.)  Science 299: 1846-1847.

  66.  Burns, E., Ifrach, I., Carmeli, S., Pawlik, J.R. and Ilan, M.  2003.  Comparison of anti-predatory defenses of Red Sea and Caribbean sponges: I. Chemical defense.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 252: 105-114.

  65.  Kelly, S.R., Jensen, P.R., Henkel, T.P. and Pawlik, J.R.  2003.  Effects of Caribbean sponge extracts on bacterial attachment.  Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 31: 175-182.

  64.  Puyana, M., Fenical, W., and Pawlik, J.R.  2003.  Are there activated chemical defenses in sponges of the genus Aplysina from the Caribbean?  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 246: 127-135.

  63.  O'Neal, W. and Pawlik, J.R.  2002.  A reappraisal of the chemical and physical defenses of Caribbean gorgonian corals against predatory fishes.   Marine Ecology Progress Series, 240: 117-126

  62.  Pisut, D.P. and Pawlik, J.R.  2002.  Anti-predatory chemical defenses of ascidians: Secondary metabolites or inorganic acids?  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 270: 203-214.

  61.  Kubanek, J., Whalen, K.E., Engel, S., Kelly, S.R., Henkel, T.P., and Pawlik, J.R.  2002.  Multiple defensive roles for triterpene glycosides from two Caribbean sponges.  Oecologia, 131: 125-136.

  60.  Pawlik, J.R., McFall, G., and Zea, S.  2002.  Does the odor from sponges of the genus Ircinia protect them from fish predators?  Journal of Chemical Ecology, 28: 1103-1115.

  59.  Toonen, R.J., and Pawlik, J.R.  2001.  Foundations of gregariousness: A dispersal polymorphism among the planktonic larvae of a marine invertebrate.  Evolution, 55: 2439-2454. 

 58.  Toonen, R. J. and Pawlik, J.R.  2001.  Settlement of the gregarious tube worm Hydroides dianthus (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) II Testing the desperate larva hypothesis.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 224: 103-114.

 57.  Toonen, R. J. and Pawlik, J.R.  2001.  Settlement of the gregarious tube worm Hydroides dianthus (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) I. Gregarious and non-gregarious settlement.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 224: 115-131.

  56.  Kubanek, J. Fenical W., and Pawlik, J.R..  2001.  New antifeedant triterpene glycosides from the Caribbean sponge Erylus formosus.  Natural Products Letters, 15: 275-285.

  55.  Pawlik, J.R. 2000.  Marine Chemical Ecology.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 207: 225-226.

  54.  Engel, S. and Pawlik, J.R. 2000. Allelopathic activities of sponge extracts.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 207: 273-281.

  53.  Assmann, M., Lichte, E., Pawlik, J.R., and Köck, M. 2000. Chemical defenses of the Caribbean sponges Agelas wiedenmayeri and Agelas conifera.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 207: 255-262.

  52.   Kubanek, J., Pawlik, J.R., Eve, T.M., and Fenical, W.  2000.  Triterpene glycosides defend the Caribbean reef sponge Erylus formosus from predatory fishes.   Marine Ecology Progress Series, 207: 69-77.

  51.   Lindel, T., Hoffmann, H., Hochgürtel, M., Pawlik, J.R.  2000.  Structure-activity relationship of the inhibition of fish feeding by sponge-derived and synthetic pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids.  Journal of Chemical Ecology, 26: 1477-1496.  

  50.   Waddell, B., Pawlik, J.R.  2000.  Defenses of Caribbean sponges against invertebrate predators: II. Assays with sea stars.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 195: 133-144.

  49.   Waddell, B., Pawlik, J.R.  2000.  Defenses of Caribbean sponges against invertebrate predators: I. Assays with hermit crabs.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 195: 125-132.

  48.   Wilson, D.M., Puyana, M., Fenical, W., Pawlik, J.R.  1999. Chemical defense of the Caribbean reef sponge Axinella corrugata against predatory fishes.  Journal of Chemical Ecology, 25: 2811-2823.

  47.   Newbold, R.W., Jensen, P.R., Fenical, W., Pawlik, J.R.  1999. Antimicrobial  activity of Caribbean sponge extracts.  Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 19: 279-284.

  46.   Dunlap, M., Pawlik, J.R.  1998. Spongivory by parrotfish in Florida mangrove and reef habitats.  P.S.Z.N.I: Marine Ecology, 19: 325-337

  45.   Swearingen, D.C. III, Pawlik, J.R.  1998.  Variability in the chemical defense of the sponge Chondrilla nucula against predatory reef fish.   Marine Biology, 131: 619-627.

  44.   Vervoort, H.C., Pawlik, J.R., Fenical, W.  1998.  Chemical defense of the Caribbean ascidian Didemnum conchyliatum.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 164: 221-228.

  43.   Pawlik, J.R.  1998.  Coral reef sponges: Do predatory fishes affect their distribution?  Limnology and Oceanography, 43: 1396-1399. 

 42.   Henrikson, A.A., Pawlik, J.R.  1998.  Seasonal variation in biofouling of gels containing extracts of marine organisms.  Biofouling, 12: 245-255. 

 41.   Chanas, B., Pawlik, J.R.  1997  Variability in the chemical defense of the Caribbean reef sponge Xestospongia muta.  Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium, 2: 1363-1368. 

40.   Pawlik, J.R.  1997.  Fish predation on Caribbean reef sponges: an emerging perspective of chemical defenses.  Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium, 2: 1255-1258. 

39.   Toonen, R.J., Pawlik, J.R.  1996.  Settlement of the tube worm Hydroides dianthus (Polychaeta: Serpulidae): Cues for Gregarious Settlement.  Marine Biology, 126: 725-733. 

38.   Chanas, B., Pawlik, J.R., Lindel, T., Fenical, W.  1996.  Chemical defense of the Caribbean sponge Agelas clathrodes (Schmidt).  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 208: 186-196. 

37.   Dunlap, M., Pawlik, J.R.  1996.  Video-monitored predation by Caribbean reef fish on an array of reef and mangrove sponges. Marine Biology, 126: 117-123. 

36.   Chanas, B., Pawlik, J.R. 1996.  Does the skeleton of a sponge provide a defense against predatory reef fish?  Oecologia, 107: 225-231. 

35.   Pawlik, J.R., Chanas, B., Toonen, R.J., Fenical, W. 1995. Defenses of Caribbean sponges against predatory reef fish: I. Chemical deterrency.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 127: 183-194.. 

34.   Chanas, B., Pawlik, J.R. 1995. Defenses of Caribbean sponges against predatory reef fish: II. Spicules, tissue toughness, and nutritional quality.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 127: 195-211. 

33.   Henrikson, A.A. and J.R. Pawlik. 1995.  A new method of assaying extracts of marine organisms for antifouling properties.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 194, 157-165. 

32.   Albrizio, S., Ciminiello, P., Fattorusso, E., Magno, S. and J.R. Pawlik.  1995. Amphitoxin, a new high molecular weight antifeedant pyridinium salt from the Caribbean sponge Amphimedon compressa.  Journal of Natural Products, 58: 647-652. 

31.   Toonen, R.J. and J.R. Pawlik. 1994. Foundations of gregariousness. Nature (London) 370: 511-512. 

30.   Pawlik, J.R. and D.J. Mense.  1994.  Larval transport, food limitation, ontogenetic plasticity, and the recruitment of sabellariid polychaetes.  Pages 275-286 in: Reproduction and Development of Marine Invertebrates.  Edited by Wilson, Jr., W.H., Stricker, S.A. and Shinn, G.L.  Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland. 

29.   Pawlik, J.R. and C.A. Butman.  1993.  Settlement of a marine tube worm as a function of current velocity: interacting effects of hydrodynamics and behavior.  Limnology and Oceanography, 38: 1730-1740. 

28.   Pawlik, J.R.  1993.  Marine Invertebrate Chemical Defenses.  Chemical Reviews, 93: 1911-1922. 

27.   Pawlik, J.R. and W. Fenical.  1992.  Chemical defense of Pterogorgia anceps, a Caribbean gorgonian coral.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 87: 183-188. 

26.   Pawlik, J.R.  1992.  The Spanish Dancer Nudibranch.  Oceanus, 35: 85-86. 

25.   Pawlik, J.R.  1992.  Chemical Ecology of the Settlement of Benthic Marine Invertebrates.  Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 30: 273-335. 

24.   Pawlik, J.R.  1992.  Induction of Marine Invertebrate Larval Settlement: Evidence for Chemical Cues.  Pages 189-236 in: Ecological Roles of Marine Natural Products.  Edited by V.J. Paul.  Cornell University Series in Chemical Ecology, Cornell University Press. 

23.   Fenical, W., and J.R. Pawlik.  1991.  Defensive properties of secondary metabolites from the Caribbean gorgonian coral Erythropodium caribaeorum.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 75: 1-8. 

22.   Pawlik, J.R., and F.S. Chia.  1991.  Larval settlement of Sabellaria cementarium Moore, and comparisons with other species of sabellariid polychaetes.  Canadian Journal of Zoology, 69: 765-770. 

21.   Pawlik, J.R., C.A. Butman and V.R. Starczak.  1991.  Hydrodynamic facilitation of gregarious settlement of a reef-building tube worm.  Science, 251: 421-424. 

20.   Roussis, V., J.R. Pawlik, M.E. Hay and W. Fenical.  1990.  Secondary metabolites of the chemically rich ascoglossan Cyerce nigricans.  Experientia, 46: 327-329. 

19.   Pawlik, J.R.  1990.  Natural and artificial induction of metamorphosis of Phragmatopoma lapidosa californica (Polychaeta: Sabellariidae), with a critical look at the effects of bioactive compounds on marine invertebrate larvae.  Bulletin of Marine Science, 46: 512-536.  

18.   Pawlik, J.R., and M.G. Hadfield. 1990.  Symposium on chemical factors that influence the settlement and metamorphosis of marine invertebrate larvae: introduction and perspective.  Bulletin of Marine Science, 46: 450-454. 

17.   Hay, M.E., J.R. Pawlik, J.E. Duffy, and W. Fenical.  1989.  Seaweed-herbivore-predator interactions: host-plant specialization reduces predation on small herbivores.  Oecologia, 81: 418-427. 

16.   Pawlik, J.R.  1989.  Tubeworms.  Pages 341-343 in: 1990 McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology, McGraw-Hill, San Francisco. 

15.   Pawlik, J.R., and W. Fenical.  1989.  A re-evaluation of the ichthyodeterrent role of prostaglandins in the Caribbean gorgonian coral, Plexaura homomalla.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 52: 95-98. 

14.   Pawlik, J.R.  1989.  Larvae of the sea hare Aplysia californica settle and metamorphose on an assortment of macroalgal species.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 51: 195-199. 

13.   Pawlik, J.R., M.R. Kernan, T.F. Molinski, M.K. Harper, and D.J. Faulkner.  1988.  Defensive chemicals of the Spanish Dancer nudibranch, Hexabranchus sanguineus, and its egg ribbons:  Macrolides derived from a sponge diet.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 119: 99-109. 

12.   Pawlik, J.R.  1988.  Larval settlement and metamorphosis of sabellariid polychaetes, with special reference to Phragmatopoma lapidosa, a reef-building species, and Sabellaria floridensis, a non-gregarious species. Bulletin of Marine Science, 43: 41-60. 

11.   Pawlik, J.R., J.B. O'Sullivan and M.G. Harasewych.  1988.  The egg capsules, embryos, and larvae of Cancellaria cooperi (Gastropoda: Cancellariidae).  The Nautilus, 102: 47-53. 

10.   Pawlik, J.R.  1988.  Larval settlement and metamorphosis of two gregarious sabellariid poly­chaetes:  Sabellaria alveolata compared with Phragmatopoma californica.  Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 68: 101-124. 

9.     Pawlik, J.R. and D.J. Faulkner.  1988.  The gregarious settlement of sabellariid polychaetes:  New perspectives on chemical cues.  Pages 475-487 in:  Marine Biodeterioration. Advanced Techniques Applicable to the Indian Ocean. Edited by: M.-F. Thompson, R. Sarojini and R. Nagabhushanam. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co., Ltd., New Delhi. 826 pp. 

8.     Amieva, M.R., C.G. Reed and J.R. Pawlik.  1987.  Ultrastructure and behavior of the larva of Phragmatopoma californica (Polychaeta: Sabellariidae):  Identification of sensory organs potentially involved in substrate selection.  Marine Biology, 95: 259-266. 

7.     Pawlik, J.R., M.T. Burch and W. Fenical.  1987.  Patterns of chemical defense among Caribbean gorgonian corals: a preliminary survey.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 108:  55-66. 

6.     Pawlik, J.R.  1987.  Bocquetia rosea, new genus, new species, an unusual rhizocephalan parasite of a sponge-inhabiting barnacle, Membranobalanus orcutti (Pilsbry), from California.  Journal of Crustacean Biology, 7: 265-273. 

5.     Pawlik, J.R. and D.J. Faulkner.  1986.  Specific free fatty acids induce larval settlement and metamorphosis of the reef-building tube worm Phragmatopoma californica (Fewkes).   Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 102: 301-310. 

4.     Pawlik, J.R.  1986.  Chemical induction of larval settlement and metamorphosis in the reef-building tube worm Phragmatopoma californica (Polychaeta: Sabellariidae).  Marine Biology, 91: 59-68. 

3.     Pawlik, J.R., K.F. Albizati and D.J. Faulkner.  1986.  Evidence of a defensive role for limatulone, a novel triterpene from the intertidal limpet Collisella limatula.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 30: 251-260. 

2.     Albizati, K.F., J.R. Pawlik and D.J. Faulkner.  1985.  Limatulone, a potent defensive metabolite of the intertidal limpet Collisella limatula.  Journal of Organic Chemistry, 50: 3428-3430. 

1.     Pawlik, J.R.  1983. A sponge-eating worm from Bermuda:  Branchiosyllis oculata (Polychaeta, Syllidae).  P.S.Z.N.I: Marine Ecology, 4: 65-79.