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noun and adjective endings

Noun Endings

first and second declension first, second and third declension 1st & 2nd declension adjectives
is, ea, id ille, illa, illud 3rd declension nouns/adj.

I. Noun endings: first and second declension: 
What the chart shows you:

Key information you need to use the chart:

First and second declension words

Singular
Case First declension Second decl. masc. Second decl. neuter
nom. terr-a hort-us  (cap-er) for-um
gen. terr-ae hort-ī for-ī
dat. terr-ae hort-ō for-ō
acc. terr-am hort-um for-um
abl. terr-ā hort-ō for-ō

Plural

nom. terr-ae hort-ī for-a
gen. terr-ārum hort-ōrum for-ōrum
dat. terr-īs hort-īs for-īs
acc. terr-ās hort-ōs for-a
abl. terr-īs hort-īs for-īs

First, Second and Third Declension endings

Singular
Case

1st 

2nd m 2nd n 3rd m & f 3rd n
nom. terr-a hort-us
(cap-er)
for-um lx tempus
gen. terr-ae hort-ī for-ī lc-is tempor-is
dat. terr-ae hort-ō for-ō lc-ī tempor-
acc. terr-am hort-um for-um lc-em tempus
abl. terr-ā hort-ō for-ō lc-e tempor-e

Plural

nom. terr-ae hort- for-a lc-ēs tempor-a
gen. terr-ārum hort-ōrum for-ōrum lc-um tempor-um
dat. terr-īs hort-īs for-īs lc-ibus tempor-ibus
acc. terr-ās hort-ōs for-a lc-ēs tempor-a
abl. terr-īs hort-īs for-īs lc-ibus tempor-ibus

2-1-2 Adjectives   The only difference between this chart and the noun endings chart, is the layout.  A pain, but traditional.

2-1-2 Adjectives: Endings only

Singular
Case Second decl. masc. First declension Second decl. neuter
nom. us  (-er) -a -um
gen. -ī -ae -ī
dat. -ō -ae -ō
acc. -um -am -um
abl. -ō -ā -ō

Plural

nom. -ī -ae -a
gen. -ōrum -ārum -ōrum
dat. -īs -īs īs
acc. -ōs -ās -a
abl. -īs -īs -īs

 

2-1-2 adjectives, sample word: longus, -a, -um, long

Singular
Case Second decl. masc. First declension Second decl. neuter
nom. long-us  long-a long-um
gen. long-ī long-ae long-ī
dat. long-ō long-ae long-ō
acc. long-um long-am long-um
abl. long-ō long-ā long-ō

Plural

nom. long-ī long-ae long-a
gen. long-ōrum long-ārum long-ōrum
dat. long-īs long-īs longīs
acc. long-ōs long-ās long-a
abl. long-īs long-īs long-īs

 

Third Declension Nouns and Adjectives

Endings only

Singular
Case Third declension noun Third declension i-stem Third declension adjective
  m/f n m/f n m/f n
nom. --    ---   (is, e)  (-ns) (er, -is, -e)
gen. -is   -is   -is  
dat. -i   -i   -i  
acc. -em  --- -em  --- -em  (-ns)  (-e)
abl. -e   -e  -i -i  

Plural

nom. -ēs -a -ēs - ia -ēs -ia
gen. -um   -ium   -ium  
dat. ibus   -ibus   -ibus  
acc. -ēs -a -ēs -ia -ēs ia
abl. -ibus   -ibus   -ibus  

Third Declension: sample words

Singular
Case Third declension noun Third declension i-stem Third declension adjective
  m/f n m/f n m/f n
nom. mens corpus urbs  mare fortis forte
gen. ment-is corpor-is urb-is mar-is fort-is fort-is
dat. ment-ī corpor-ī urb-ī mar-ī fort-ī fort-ī
acc. ment-em  corpus urb-em mare fort-em  forte
abl. ment-e corpor-e urb-e  mar-ī fort-ī fort-ī

Plural

nom. ment-ēs corpor-a urb-ēs mar- ia fort-ēs fort-ia
gen. ment-um corpor-um urb-ium mar-ium fort-ium fort-ium
dat. ment-ibus corpor-ibus urb-ibus mar-ibus fort-ibus fort-ibus
acc. ment-ēs corpor-a urb-ēs mar-ia fort-ēs fortia
abl. ment-ibus corpor-ibus urb-ibus mar-ibus fort-ibus fort-ibus

 

Paradigm of is, ea, id   Note that this chart is mostly like first and second declension charts.  The exceptions are marked with an asterisk.  The big exceptions are the genitive and dative singular.

Singular
Case Second decl. masc. First declension Second decl. neuter
nom. is* he/it* ea she/it id* it
gen. eius* his/its eius* her(s)/its eius* its
dat. e* to him/it e* to her/it e* it
acc. eum him/it eam her/it id* it
abl. eō him/it eā her/it eō it

Plural

nom. e they eae they ea they
gen. erum their eārum their erum their
dat. es to them es to them es to them
acc. eōs them eās them ea them
abl. es them es them es them

*males would be "he" or "him," masculine things would be "it":

 

Paradigm of ille, illa, illud   Note that this chart is mostly like first and second declension charts.  The exceptions are marked with an asterisk.  The big exceptions are the genitive and dative singular.  Also note: the exceptions are in exactly the same place as is, ea, id.

Singular
Case Second decl. masc. First declension Second decl. neuter
nom. ille* he/it/that illa she/it/that illud* it/that
gen. illus* his/its/of that illus* her(s)/its/of that illus* its/of that
dat. illī * to him/it/that illī * to her/it/that illī * it/that
acc. illum him/it/that illam her/it/that illud* it/that
abl. illō him/it/that illā her/it/that illō it/that

Plural

nom. illī they/those illae they/those illa they/those
gen. illōrum their/of those illārum their/of those illōrum their/of those
dat. illīs to them/those illīs to them/those illīs to them/those
acc. illōs them/those illās them/those illa them/those
abl. illīs them/those illī s them/those illīs them/those

Paradigm of hic, haec, hoc 

Singular
Case Second decl. masc. First declension Second decl. neuter
nom. hic* he/it/this haec* she/it hoc* it, this
gen. huius* his/its, of this huius* her(s)/its, of this huius* its, of this
dat. huic* to him/it/this huic* to her/it/this huic* to it/this
acc. hunc him/it/this hanc her/it, this hoc it, this
abl. hōc him/it hāc her/it hōc it

Plural

nom. hī these hae these haec these
gen. hōrum of these hārum of these hōrum of these
dat. hīs to these hīs to these hīs to these
acc. hōs these hās these haec these
abl. hīs these hīs these hīs these

Relative and Interrogative pronouns

  Relative pronoun
who, which, that
Interrogative pronoun
who? what?
Singular
Case Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Femine Neuter
Nominative quī quae quod quis? quis? quid?
Genitive cuius cuius cuius cuius? cuius? cuius?
Dative cuī cuī cuī cui? cui? cui?
Accusative quem quam quod quem? quem? quid?
Ablative quo qua quo quo? qua? quo?

Plural

Nominative quī quae quae quī? quae? quae?
Accusative quos quas quae quos? quas? quae?
Genitive quorum quarum quorum quorum? quarum? quorum?
Dative quibus quibus quibus quibus? quibus? quibus?
Ablative quibus quibus quibus quibus? quibus? quibus?

Quidam, quaedam, quoddam, a certain

Singular
Case Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative quīdam quaedam quoddam
Genitive cuiusdam cuiusdam cuiusdam
Dative cuidam cuidam cuidam
Accusative quendam quandam quoddam
Ablative quodam quadam quodam

Plural 

Nominative quidam quaedam quaedam
Genitive quorundam quarundam quorundam
Dative quibusdam quibusdam quibusdam
Accusative quosdam quasdam quaedam
Ablative quibusdam quibusdam quibusdam

 

The Relative Pronoun

Forms

case

masculine

feminine

neuter

usual meaning

 

Singular

 

nom.

quī

quae

quod

who, which

gen.

cuius

cuius

cuius

whose

dat.

cui

cui

cui

to/for whom

acc.

quem

quam

quod

whom, which

abl.

quō

quā

quō

whom

 

Plural

 

nom.

quī

quae

quae

who, which

gen.

quōrum

quārum

quōrum

whose, of whom

dat.

quibus

quibus

quibus

to/for whom

acc.

quōs

quās

quae

whom

abl.

quibus

quibus

quibus

whom

 

         English: The man whom I saw is a good friend.

         Latin: vir quem vidi est bonus amicus.  quem agrees with the antecedent, vir, in gender (masculine) and number (singular).  It is accusative because in its clause it is the direct object.

Antecedent:

can be any gender, number or case

Relative pronoun in clauses:

the relative pronoun is whatever case its clause requires and agrees with its antecedent in gender and number

Examples from Latin Praxis site: (for translations go here)

Nominative antecedents:

  1. Puer (quī cecidit) frāter meus est.
  2. Puer (cuius pater crās veniet) nōn valet.
  3. Puer (cui librum dedī) tē vocat.
  4. Puer (quem puellae vītant) stultus est.
  5. Puerqu illae currunt) ibi stat.

Genitive antecedents:

  1. Ibi est dōnum puerī (quī meus frāter est.)
  2. Quid est nōmen puerī (cuius pater crās veniet)?
  3. Hoc est dōnum puerī (cui librum herī dedī).
  4. Ea est amīca puerī (quem herī vīdimus).
  5. Hoc est dōnum puerī (dē qu illa puella semper cōgitat).

Dative antecedents:

  1. Da signum puerō quī stat in agrō.
  2. Da aquam puerō cuius frātrēs vīdimus.
  3. Da tuum librum puerō cui meam pecniam commīsī.
  4. Da grātiās puerō quem hodiē invēnimus.
  5. Da glōriam puerō quōcum cīvitātem servāvērunt.

Accusative antecedents:

  1. Puerum quī tē saepe laudat illa puella semper culpat.
  2. Puerum cuius pater crās veniet nēmō adiuvābit.
  3. Puerum cui pecūniam commīsī ad Asiam mittent.
  4. Puerum quem herī vīdī nunc nōn videō.
  5. Puerum quō cum nunc remanēs ad urbem crās dūcent.

Ablative antecedents:

  1. puerō quī animālia timet medica cōgitat.
  2. Prō puerō cuius labor patriam servāvit faciēmus multa bona.
  3. Cum puerō cui grātiās ēgimus eam rēgīna mittet.
  4. puerō quem timet currit illa puella.
  5. puerō quō cum sē iunxerat mihi multa dīxit.

Practice: Note the relative clause and the antecedent.

  1. equus quī trāns agrōs currit est celer.
  2. pauperēs quos rēx iuvit fuerant miserī.
  3. illum senem laudāmus cuius philosophiam intellēgimus.
  4. fīlia rēgis quī illam terram rexit est iucunda pulchraque.
  5. vītam vīxērunt quae gravis diffīcilisque erat.
  6. Puella cuī pecūniam herī dedī hodiē mē vidēbit.
  7. Habēre illum libellum quem scrīpsit dēsīderō.
  8. Amor quem sentiō perpetuus erit.
  9. Mōrēs illīus vīrī quem laudō nōn semper bonī sunt
  10. Puer cuī signum agricola dedit cōpiās ad mare dūxit.
  11. Urbs quam Rōma dēlēre diū cupiēbat nunc eī est amīca.
  12. Mātrēs quārum fīliī ad Graeciam nāvigerant tristēs sunt.

 

  1. equus (quī trāns agrōs currit) est celer.
  2. pauperēs (quos rēx iuvit) fuerant miserī.
  3. illum senem laudāmus (cuius philosophiam intellēgimus).
  4. fīlia rēgis (quī illam terram rexit) est iucunda pulchraque.
  5. vītam vīxērunt (quae gravis diffīcilisque erat).
  6. Puella (cuī pecūniam herī dedī) hodiē mē vidēbit.
  7. Habēre illum libellum (quem scrīpsit) dēsīderō.
  8. Amor (quem sentiō) perpetuus erit.
  9. Mōrēs illīus vīrī (quem laudō) nōn semper bonī sunt
  10. Puer (cuī signum agricola dedit) cōpiās ad mare dūxit.
  11. Urbs (quam Rōma dēlēre diū cupiēbat) nunc eī est amīca.
  12. Mātrēs (quārum fīliī ad Graeciam nāvigerant) tristēs sunt.

Specific Case uses

Nominative

 

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Singular

quī

quae

quod

Plural

quī

quae

quae

Accusative

 

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Singular

quem

quam

quod

Plural

quōs

quās

quae

  1. hic est liber (quem Cicerō scrīpsit).

  2. librum incipiō(quem Cicerō scrīpsit).

  3. Cicerōōrātionēs (quās omnēs laudābunt) rēcitāvit.

  4. rosae (quās poeta mē dedit) pulchrae sunt.