TCT Chapter 8: Organizing and Drafting
- Creating documents outside of the technical writing pattern; using different styles
- Genre: predictable pattern for organizing information to achieve specific purposes
- Analytical report: introduction, methods, results, discussion, conclusion
- Procedure: introduction, list of parts/tools, safety information, sequentially ordered steps, conclusion
- Outlining the document: headings, subheadings, bullet points, organize document by putting smaller sections within larger sections
- Standard Organization:
- Introduction (six possible moves)
- Define subjects
- State purpose
- State main point
- Stress the importance of subject
- Provide background information
- Forecast content
- Cause and Effect
- Comparison and Contrast
- Better and Worse
- Cost and Benefits
- Chronological order
- Conclusion (five possible closing moves)
- Make an obvious transition
- Restate your main point
- Restress the importance of subject
- Look to the future
- Say thank you and offer contact information
In the Six Opening Moves of an Introduction what comes before stressing the importance of the subject?
State main point
Provide the background information
Summarize the content
TCT Chapter 5: Ethics in the Technical Workplace
- 3 categories of ethics:
- Personal(values derived from family, culture, and faith)
- Social (values derived from constitutional, legal, utilitarian, and caring sources):
- Conservation (values predicated on sustainability that protect and preserve the ecosystem)
- Paths you can take if you disagree with your company:
- Persuasion through costs and benefits
- Seek legal advice
- Memos to file
True or false: Because something has been done over and over again means that it is ethical?
Parsons Ethics in Public Relations: A Guide to Best Practice excerpt
The process of PR decision-making:
- Research (gather and analyze available data)
- Plan (decide what outcomes you want)
- Implement (make your decision)
- Evaluate (figure out it was a good decision)
The Potter Box guide to ethical decision making:
- Problem definition
- Analysis of values
- Application of principles
- Delineation of loyalties
Luntz "The Ten Rules of Effective Language"
- Simplicity: Use Small Words
- Brevity: Use Short Sentences
- Credibility is as Important as Philosophy
- People have to believe you to buy it
- If your words lack sincerity they will lack impact
- Consistency Matters
- Don’t go in too many different directions at the same time
- Choose one or a few ideas and go with it
- Novelty: Offer Something New
- Sound and Texture Matter
- Not just the language but how you string it together
- Ex. It will be more memorable if all key words start with the same letter
- Sometimes catchiness is more important than grammar
- Ex. “i’m lovin’ it! “
- Speak Aspirationally
- Speak to people's hopes, dreams, and fears
- Paint a vivid picture for the audience
- Ask a Question
- Provide Context and Explain Relevance
- Give them the “why”
Name 4 of the ten rules of Effective Language.
Ruff and Aziz Managing Communications in a Crisis excerpt
- Preparing the crisis ahead of time
- Identifying various audiences beforehand
- parent company
- emergency services
- local authorities
- trade associations
- How you will handle the issue
- Some companies make it through a crisis and others do not. This depends on:
- Nature of the crisis
- If a plan was prepared to deal with the crisis
- Never underestimate the impact a local event could have
- The credibility of a message is important (is it believable?)
What is the most demanding external audience?
Press Release Readings
(Mediacollege.com's information about press release formatting, Webwire's "Press Release Format Guidelines," Press Release Writing's "10 Essential Tips for Writing Press Releases")
Press Releases should be:
- Frontloaded (Including most important information in the first ten words)
- Third person
- Audience (media)
- Formal tone
- Newsworthy information
- Concise Effective and to the point, is not too wordy, states just the facts
- For Immediate Release
- City, State, Date
- Initial paragraph
- Company info
- Contact info
- Pound Signs (###)
Which of these is not part of a Press Release?
Written in First Person
Includes Contact Information
Easy for Media Personnel to replicate exactly
TCT Chapter 17: Letters and Memos
- Memos should be concise as possible, include only need to know information.
- The purpose of your memo should be immediately obvious to your readers, in the first paragraph preferably in the first or second sentence.
- Anticipate all possible readers: primary, secondary, tertiary, gatekeepers.
- Determine the context of your memo; consider the physical, economic, political and ethical factors.
- Use the “you” style: put more emphasis on the readers rather than you, the author.
- Create an appropriate tone.
- Avoid bureaucratic phrasing.
- main point
- background information
- importance of the subject
- restates main point
- thanks reader
- looks to the future
- Signature (for letters only)
Which is not located in a memo header?
The Purdue Online Writing Lab's information about memo writing
- Memos have a twofold purpose: they bring attention to problems and they solve problems
- Memos are most effective when they connect the purpose of the writer with the interests and needs of the reader.
- Choose the audience of the memo wisely. Ensure that all of the people that the memo is addressed to need to read the memo.
The heading segment follows this general format:
- TO: (readers' names and job titles)
- FROM: (your name and job title)
- DATE: (complete and current date)
- SUBJECT: (what the memo is about, highlighted in some way)
The purpose of a memo is usually found in the opening paragraph and includes: the purpose of the memo, the context and problem, and the specific assignment or task.
The context is the event, circumstance, or background of the problem you are solving. Include only what your reader needs, but be sure it is clear.
One essential portion of a memo is the task statement where you should describe what you are doing to help solve the problem.
If your memo is longer than a page, you may want to include a separate summary segment. However, this section not necessary for short memos and should not take up a significant amount of space.
The discussion segments are the longest portions of the memo, and are the parts in which you include all the details that support your ideas. Begin with the information that is most important.
After the reader has absorbed all of your information, you want to close with a courteous ending that states what action you want your reader to take.
Make sure you document your findings or provide detailed information whenever necessary. You can do this by attaching lists, graphs, tables, etc. at the end of your memo.
Who is the audience of an internal memo?
Employees of the affected company
"Time for Your Business to Apologize on Video?"
No matter how big or small the problem is, you should always acknowledge it and apologize. It doesn’t matter how many people are affected, even if it is just one you should still make it a point to apologize.
A successful apology in business should demonstrate the following:
Which of following is something that an apology video should do:
Make excuses and try to justify your decisions
Ask for cooperation and enlist help in remedying the situation
Detract attention from the real issues
Count on forgiveness