S. Africa

N. Africa

SW Asia

SE Asia

C. Asia

E. Asia


Arkinian tradition in Egypt

Dibeira west site

Harifian tradition in Sinai

Late Natufian period--change in burials

--beginning of skull removal

--seasonal camps

--more intensive cultivation

Nahal Oren site


Approximate End of the Younger Dryas




















PPNA (10,300-9600)



-large permanent settlements with groups sent out for resources

-early domesticates

-einkorn, emmer, barley

-Netiv Hagdud 9800-9500, barley

-Aswad 9800-9600

-skull removal

-hunting of wild animals

-grinding stones
















1st pottery in S. China


Gebel Nabta in E. Sahara--foraging

PPNB (9600-8000)

-large permanent villages linked by trade and political alliances with smaller villages and nomadic tribes

-square houses, plastered floors

-domestication of sheep/goat, cattle, pig

-precise burial rituals

-Ain Ghazal-skull prep



-Abu Hureyra



-Ahmar along the Euphrates

-Ganj Dareh-goat domestication, early pottery

-1st metallurgy in Zagros, Iranian Plateau 8950-trinket technology

-sheep domestication 8700-8200 BP

-Jarmo 8700-8000

-Asikli Hoyuk 8600-8500

-pig domestication 8500

-Umm Dabaghiyah in Mesopotamia (8500-8000)

Catal Hoyuk 8400-7500 ritual importance of cattle

-trade present

-numeracy present

































Shamarkian stone tool industry in Egypt

possible gardening in New Guinea, Kuk swamp

Initial Jomon period in Japan




Elkabian stone tool industry along Nile 8340-7885

Qarunian in Egypt 8200-7600



Beginning of agriculture


Pengtoushan-earliest date for rice agriculture 8400-7800

clay-covered post-houses



Probable adaptation of farming in Nile delta (according to Ofer bar-Yosef)

-Hassuna culture (8000-7200)




-Sabi Abyad on N. Euphrates 7550

Mehrgahr-1st levels, full-scale agriculture, emmer, einkorn, barley, domesticated cattle and goats


Peiligang-earliest date for millet agriculture 7800-7200




Chicken domesticated at Cishan 7400

Ta-hsi culture 7450-5450 BP


End of Peiligang culture








Earliest sites on the Fayum 7270

-Samarra culture (7500-6800)

-Tell es-Sawaan

-Halaf culture (7500-6700)

-Beginning of Chalcolithic period






Spirit Cave abandoned

Jeitun culture-1st known agriculture in C. Asia

Hissar culture-- agro-pastoralists, no connection to Jeitun





Pastoralists in the Sahara








Merimde occupied 6950, Nile Valley, domesticated sheep present








Majiabang culture (6950-4950)

Hemudu culture 6950-4950

Yangshao culture (6950-4950)

-millet agriculture


-Yellow River Basin

-Bronze, painted pottery

-earliest known domesticated water buffalo at Hemudu







Ubaid culture (6700-5450)

Ubaid expansion


-stamp seals

-complex trade



Definite agriculture in Nile Valley

Horse domesticated S. Russian steppes 6450

Dawenkou culture (6450-4650)


Agriculture in the Fayum

Afanasiev Culture (5950-4450)

-first evidence for chariots 5900







Longshan interaction sphere 5450


Nagada I-III 5450-5050 BP












-Uruk contact at Buto?

Uruk period (5450-5150)

-expansion of cities in Mesopotamia 5550 BP


-cylinder seals

-beginning of writing 5250

-5 cities of S. Mesopotamia--Uruk, Nippur, Ur, Adab, Suruppak

-Uruk expansion (5350-5150)


Jemdet Nasr period (5150-4950)

-Proto-Elamite expansion (5150-4850)



Invention of hieroglyphs

Dynasty 0

Egyptian Old Kingdom (5050-4150)

-importance of mummification


Djoser and Imhotep 4730

-pyramids begin 4550

-peak of Age of Pyramids

-hieroglyphs standardized 4550















-Pepi I




Early Dynastic period (4950-4300)

-Cuneiform completely invented 4850

-increasing power of palace

-80% Mesopotamian population is in cities

-Enikgal overhauls bureaucracy of Lagash

-Urukagina v. Lugalzagesi

Lugalzagesi conquers

Liangzhu culture 4950-4150

bis and congs


Indus Valley culture 4450-3550

Indus Valley script developed













Indus fluorescence 4150-3850




Andranovo culture 4450-2950

Longshan culture 4450-3850









Kingdom of Yam

-Harkhuf and Sebni explore region

Sargon and the Akkadian dynasty 4300-4200

-standardization of weights and measures

-EBIV/MBI-Urban collapse in mideast









rice at Khok Phanom Di









Gutian Interregnum









1st Intermediate period

Ur III 4100-3950

Oxus culture 4150-3650









Middle Kingdom 4000-3590

-Assiut rebuilds

-Menhutohep finishes rebuilding

-Herakleiopolitan kings at Thebes using Memphite Theology

-fort is hallmark

-militaristic and expansionistic

Isin-Larsa period 3950-3750

Old Babylonian period 3950-3550

-1st alphabet

























-Babylon sacked by Hittites

Erlitou-Hsia dynasty 4050-3750


Shang Dynasty 3650-3050













2nd Intermediate period (Hyksos) 3450-3350


Egyptian New Kingdom 3350-2950

-hallmark is temple

-Ramses II

Israel stela

Sea Peoples-Ramses III


Hittites 3550-3150







Battle of Kadesh


Mitanni Empire








Philistines LBIIB


3150 Sea Peoples Invade     Western Zhou 3050-2720
2950 pearl millet domesticated in SW Sahara 3rd Intermediate period 2950-2650 Assyrian Empire