1.   The United States is a society where drugs are used

            A)   a great deal for both social and medical purposes.

            B)   occasionally for social and medical purposes.

            C)   rarely for social purposes and frequently for medical purposes.

            D)   occasionally for medical purposes and primarily for social purposes.



      2.   A drug that alters the user's consciousness is considered to be

            A)   abuse prone.

            B)   psychoactive.

            C)   illicit.

            D)   synthetic.



      3.   Current theory suggests that addictive behavior is connected to pleasurable feelings caused by

            A)   one's expectations of an event.

            B)   the brain's own chemicals.

            C)   the long-term use of a drug.

            D)   certain personality disorders.



      4.   Which one of the following is NOT a general characteristic associated with addictive behaviors?

            A)   obsessive planning for the next opportunity to participate in the behavior

            B)   reinforcement through feelings of pleasure associated with the behavior

            C)   no effort to control behavior

            D)   a pattern of increasing frequency of the behavior



      5.   Characteristics of people with addictions include all of the following EXCEPT

            A)   expecting to have a pleasant experience with the behavior before it is tried.

            B)   difficulty dealing with stress.

            C)   poor self-regulation.

            D)   satisfaction with their current life situation.



      6.   Compulsive shoppers typically do not

            A)   buy daily necessities.

            B)   spend money to relieve painful feelings.

            C)   spend money for feelings of excitement.

            D)   feel distressed by their behavior.



      7.   A drug is defined as

            A)   any substance that can affect the structure or function of the body.

            B)   a chemical, other than food, intended to affect the structure or function of the body.

            C)   a chemical that alters the psychological state of a person.

            D)   a chemical intended to alter the emotions.



      8.   Which one of the following is NOT considered to be a drug by definition?

            A)   antibiotics

            B)   tobacco

            C)   coffee

            D)   lead paint



      9.   The drug that was originally included in Coca-Cola was

            A)   heroin.

            B)   cocaine.

            C)   alcohol.

            D)   methedrine.



    10.   Drug abuse is

            A)   a maladaptive pattern of use of any substance.

            B)   a pattern of use that does not affect one's personal life.

            C)   the combination of physical symptoms that follow an interruption in drug use.

            D)   a maladaptive pattern of use of any substance accompanied by withdrawal.



    11.   Driving drunk could be considered

            A)   drug misuse.

            B)   drug addiction.

            C)   alcohol abuse.

            D)   alcohol addiction.



    12.   The contemporary term for what was formerly called addiction is

            A)   intoxication.

            B)   dependence.

            C)   abuse.

            D)   misuse.



    13.   Requiring more of a substance to get the same desired effect is called

            A)   withdrawal.

            B)   dependence.

            C)   adjustment.

            D)   tolerance.



    14.   A characteristic that indicates drug dependence is

            A)   withdrawal.

            B)   anxiety.

            C)   stability.

            D)   coping.



    15.   Which of the following behaviors does NOT characterize a drug-dependent behavior?

            A)   having a persistent desire to regulate substance use

            B)   taking large amounts of a substance over a short period of time

            C)   changing one's lifestyle to accommodate drug use

            D)   continuing to use the substance in spite of recognition that its use is a problem



    16.   Which of the following is a risk factor for trying illicit drugs?

            A)   being assertive

            B)   being in your thirties

            C)   being from a stepfamily

            D)   being male



    17.   Which of the following is NOT a risk factor for drug use?

            A)   being male

            B)   not graduating from high school

            C)   having a high-risk personality

            D)   being an independent thinker



    18.   John, 14 years old, is somewhat small for his age and is often teased by his peers. He has recently become involved with a group that is known to use alcohol and marijuana. What factor has probably had the most influence on John's decision to become involved with drugs?

            A)   rebellion

            B)   peer acceptance

            C)   experimentation

            D)   allure of excitement



    19.   Many of our nation's drug problems are driven by

            A)   socioeconomic problems.

            B)   racial factors.

            C)   ethnic factors.

            D)   gender differences.



    20.   A psychological risk factor for drug dependence is

            A)   fetal exposure.

            B)   sibling drug abuse.

            C)   parent drug abuse.

            D)   difficulty controlling impulses.



    21.   A social factor related to drug use is

            A)   difficulty in controlling impulses.

            B)   a need for stimulation.

            C)   a need to blot out emotional pain.

            D)   sibling abuse of drugs.



    22.   Injecting drugs increases the user's risk of all of the following EXCEPT

            A)   gangrene.

            B)   herpes.

            C)   HIV infection.

            D)   hepatitis C.



    23.   Psychoactive drugs change mood or behavior by acting on the

            A)   heart.

            B)   liver.

            C)   spinal cord.

            D)   brain.



    24.   Cocaine affects the neurotransmitter

            A)   dopamine.

            B)   adrenalin.

            C)   serotonin.

            D)   ornithine.



    25.   The effects of a drug depend on all of the following EXCEPT

            A)   the properties of the drug.

            B)   the physical characteristics of the user.

            C)   the cost of the drug.

            D)   psychological factors.



    26.   Which of the following is NOT considered a drug factor?

            A)   pharmacological factors

            B)   dose-response function

            C)   personal expectations

            D)   time-action function



    27.   The dose-response function is the relationship between the effect of the drug and the

            A)   amount of the drug taken.

            B)   length of use of drugs in general.

            C)   experience with this particular drug.

            D)   surrounding circumstances at time of consumption of the drug.



    28.   The relationship between the amount of drug taken and the effect is called the

            A)   dose-response relationship.

            B)   time-response function.

            C)   dose-time function.

            D)   tolerance effect function.



    29.   The relationship between the time elapsed since the drug was taken and the intensity of the effect is called the

            A)   time-effect function.

            B)   dose-response relationship.

            C)   time-response relationship.

            D)   time-action function.



    30.   Which method of use produces the least effects from a drug?

            A)   mainlining

            B)   injecting

            C)   smoking

            D)   swallowing



    31.   Which of the following is NOT a "user factor"?

            A)   pregnancy

            B)   social support for using a drug

            C)   general health

            D)   genetics



    32.   The effect produced by an inert substance because of the user's expectations is called

            A)   paranoia.

            B)   the placebo effect.

            C)   the set effect.

            D)   delusion.



    33.   In terms of drug use, "setting" means the

            A)   user's expectations.

            B)   placebo effect.

            C)   overall effects of the drug.

            D)   social environment.



    34.   Narcotics fit into the category of

            A)   opioids.

            B)   psychedelics.

            C)   stimulants.

            D)   deliriants.



    35.   Which of the following drugs is a narcotic?

            A)   codeine

            B)   peyote

            C)   mescaline

            D)   Dexedrine



    36.   Which of the following drugs is NOT a narcotic?

            A)   methadone

            B)   codeine

            C)   morphine

            D)   Dexedrine



    37.   Absorption of opioids typically occurs through the

            A)   heart.

            B)   lungs.

            C)   liver.

            D)   skin.



    38.   Two rapid means of introducing opioids into the body are

            A)   inhalation and injection.

            B)   injection and ingestion.

            C)   absorption and inhalation.

            D)   ingestion and inhalation.



    39.   All of the following are withdrawal symptoms from opioids EXCEPT

            A)   cramps.

            B)   headache.

            C)   chills.

            D)   irritability.



    40.   The increased use of heroin among high school students is primarily due to the

            A)   increased availability of opioids.

            B)   increased rate of sniffing or smoking the drug.

            C)   increased purity of heroin.

            D)   immediate pleasurable effect of heroin.



    41.   Drugs classified as central nervous system depressants include

            A)   hallucinogens.

            B)   synthetics.

            C)   deliriants.

            D)   sedative-hypnotics.



    42.   All of the following are central nervous system depressants EXCEPT

            A)   antianxiety agents.

            B)   barbiturates.

            C)   alcohol.

            D)   deliriants.



    43.   A slang term used to describe barbiturates is

            A)   snow.

            B)   downers.

            C)   horse.

            D)   ice.



    44.   Antianxiety agents are also known as

            A)   tranquilizers.

            B)   stimulants.

            C)   opioids.

            D)   psychedelics.



    45.   Barbiturates are used medicinally for all of the following EXCEPT

            A)   to treat insomnia.

            B)   as a sedative prior to surgery.

            C)   to treat anxiety.

            D)   to control psychoses.



    46.   All of the following are considered "club drugs" EXCEPT

            A)   LSD.

            B)   MDMA.

            C)   RDA.

            D)   GHB.



    47.   One of the "date rape drugs" is called

            A)   rohypnol.

            B)   valium.

            C)   morphine.

            D)   alcohol.



    48.   A stimulant

            A)   increases blood pressure.

            B)   constricts the pupils.

            C)   decreases fatty acids.

            D)   increases appetite.



    49.   The drug plant that is most closely associated with South America is

            A)   the opium poppy.

            B)   marijuana.

            C)   mushrooms.

            D)   the coca plant.



    50.   At one time, cocaine was used by medical doctors in an attempt to cure

            A)   alcoholism.

            B)   psychiatric problems.

            C)   narcolepsy.

            D)   impotence.



    51.   The LEAST common method of cocaine use is

            A)   ingestion.

            B)   snorting.

            C)   inhaling.

            D)   injection.



    52.   Cocaine is introduced into the body fastest by

            A)   injection.

            B)   ingestion.

            C)   smoking.

            D)   snorting.



    53.   The cocaine "high" lasts for

            A)   1-5 minutes.

            B)   2-10 minutes.

            C)   5-20 minutes.

            D)   up to 1 hour.



    54.   The effects of cocaine are felt in

            A)   about 10 seconds if inhaled.

            B)   about 10 seconds if injected.

            C)   5-10 minutes if snorted.

            D)   5 minutes if injected.



    55.   Heavy users attempting to maintain the effect of cocaine may inject the drug every _______________ minutes.

            A)   3-5

            B)   5-10

            C)   10-20

            D)   20-30



    56.   Sudden death from cocaine is the result of all of the following EXCEPT

            A)   depressed CNS.

            B)   strokes.

            C)   convulsions.

            D)   heart attacks.



    57.   All of the following are effects on the baby of cocaine use during pregnancy EXCEPT

            A)   stillbirth.

            B)   increased birth weight.

            C)   infant irritability.

            D)   hyperactivity of the baby.



    58.   Children exposed to cocaine through the mother's use during pregnancy

            A)   may show signs of behavioral problems.

            B)   tend to be lethargic.

            C)   have mild temperament patterns.

            D)   are at risk for seizure disorders.



    59.   "Ice," "crank," and "crystal" are common names for

            A)   cocaine.

            B)   heroin.

            C)   barbiturates.

            D)   amphetamines.



    60.   "Ice" is a/an

            A)   opioid.

            B)   depressant.

            C)   hallucinogen.

            D)   methamphetamine.



    61.   Small doses of amphetamines result in all of the following EXCEPT

            A)   improved complex motor skills.

            B)   increased alertness.

            C)   increased motor activity.

            D)   decreased fatigue.



    62.   Amphetamines can do all of the following EXCEPT

            A)   curb short-term appetite.

            B)   increase motor activity.

            C)   counteract fatigue.

            D)   alter a person's high-level thinking.



    63.   When the effects of amphetamines wear off, the feeling that is most likely to overcome the user is

            A)   fatigue.

            B)   anxiety.

            C)   irritability.

            D)   psychosis.



    64.   State-dependent learning is a

            A)   situation where learning is possible only in a drug-induced state.

            B)   situation where what is learned in a drug-induced state is difficult to recall when the learner is not in that state.

            C)   situation where a person loses the sense of his or her own reality.

            D)   symptom of intellectual deterioration caused by drug abuse.



    65.   A situation in which information learned in a drug-induced state is difficult to recall when not intoxicated is a description of

            A)   set.

            B)   nondiscrimination.

            C)   state dependency.

            D)   psychosis.



    66.   Which of the following statements is true regarding amphetamine use and psychosis?

            A)   Psychosis is a withdrawal symptom.

            B)   Psychosis can result from repeated use of amphetamines.

            C)   Psychosis associated with amphetamine use is seldom associated with violent behavior.

            D)   Psychosis is rarely associated with heavy amphetamine use.



    67.   Amphetamine withdrawal is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT

            A)   irritability.

            B)   depression.

            C)   cardiac arrhythmias.

            D)   muscle aches.



    68.   Fetal consequences for women who use amphetamines during pregnancy include

            A)   blindness.

            B)   deafness.

            C)   misshaped head.

            D)   deformed limbs.



    69.   Ephedrine is

            A)   made from amphetamine.

            B)   less effective as a stimulant than caffeine.

            C)   more effective as a stimulant than caffeine.

            D)   a common ingredient in headache remedies.



    70.   Caffeine use

            A)   counters fatigue.

            B)   decreases gastric secretion.

            C)   induces sleep.

            D)   induces hunger.



    71.   Which of the following beverages contains the most caffeine?

            A)   coffee

            B)   tea

            C)   hot chocolate

            D)   cola



    72.   The most widely used illegal drug in the United States is

            A)   heroin.

            B)   cocaine.

            C)   marijuana.

            D)   crack.



    73.   The second most widely used illegal drug in the United States is

            A)   marijuana.

            B)   cocaine.

            C)   heroin.

            D)   LSD.



    74.   The active component in marijuana is

            A)   ADD.

            B)   THC.

            C)   RHC.

            D)   MDMA.



    75.   Physiologic effects of marijuana include

            A)   increased heart rate and increased motor skills.

            B)   dilation of blood vessels in the eyes and impaired motor skills.

            C)   decreased appetite and increased heart rate.

            D)   constricted blood vessels in the eyes and decreased appetite.



    76.   Medical use of THC includes treatment for

            A)   heart disease.

            B)   cataracts.

            C)   chemotherapy side effects.

            D)   depression and psychosis.



    77.   Evidence indicates that long-term marijuana users are at risk for

            A)   disorientation.

            B)   chronic bronchial irritation.

            C)   heart disease.

            D)   psychosis.



    78.   Consequences of marijuana use as they relate to male fertility include all of the following EXCEPT

            A)   decreased sperm counts.

            B)   increased progesterone levels.

            C)   decreased testosterone levels.

            D)   increased sperm abnormalities.



    79.   Fetal consequences for women who smoke marijuana during pregnancy may include

            A)   impaired growth and development.

            B)   increased risk of leukemia.

            C)   cleft palate.

            D)   defects of the genitourinary tract.



    80.   Which of the following statements about characteristics of marijuana use and dependence is FALSE?

            A)   Marked tolerance can be achieved.

            B)   Withdrawal symptoms are severe.

            C)   Marijuana can become the focus of the user's life.

            D)   A chronic marijuana user is likely to be a heavy user of tobacco.



    81.   Which of the following drugs is NOT a hallucinogen?

            A)   mescaline

            B)   psilocybin

            C)   LSD

            D)   methadone



    82.   Which kind of drug can induce biological tolerance after a couple of doses?

            A)   alcohol

            B)   heroin

            C)   hallucinogens

            D)   cocaine



    83.   Which of the following is NOT typically associated with use of hallucinogens?

            A)   altered states of consciousness

            B)   synesthesia

            C)   feelings of depersonalization

            D)   physical dependence



    84.   Which drug is most closely associated with flashbacks?

            A)   LSD

            B)   cocaine

            C)   marijuana

            D)   amyl nitrite



    85.   Which type of drug has been taken as part of a search for a religious or mystical experience?

            A)   LSD

            B)   PCP

            C)   MDMA

            D)   DMT



    86.   The use of PCP can cause

            A)   a loss of proprioception.

            B)   flashbacks.

            C)   enhanced sense of empathy.

            D)   increased sensory awareness.



    87.   Inhalants do all of the following EXCEPT

            A)   cause hearing loss.

            B)   reduce inhibitions.

            C)   impair bone marrow function.

            D)   improve sensory function.



    88.   In comparison to youth living in urban areas, eighth graders in rural America are NOT

            A)   104% more likely to use amphetamines.

            B)   90% more likely to smoke marijuana.

            C)   83% percent more likely to use crack.

            D)   70% more likely to get drunk.



    89.   The increase of intravenous drug use in rural America has contributed to an increase in the incidence of

            A)   cancer.

            B)   AIDS.

            C)   herpes.

            D)   gonorrhea.



    90.   It is estimated that _______________ of workers use psychoactive drugs in the workplace.

            A)   5%

            B)   10%

            C)   15%

            D)   25%



    91.   Which of the following statements about methadone is FALSE?

            A)   It decreases the craving for heroin.

            B)   It allows the heroin user to function more normally.

            C)   Its use is not associated with dependency.

            D)   It is addictive.



    92.   Codependency is best described as

            A)   a dependency on more than one substance.

            B)   when two people share the same type of drug dependency.

            C)   a form of enabling.

            D)   a combination of drug dependencies.



    93.   If you continue to be involved with a drug-dependent person and your actions facilitate that person's continuing dependence, you are said to be

            A)   a facilitator.

            B)   codependent.

            C)   interdependent.

            D)   reinforcing.



    94.   All of the following are signs that a person's life may be centered on drugs EXCEPT

            A)   frequent borrowing of money.

            B)   deterioration of personal appearance.

            C)   sudden changes in group of friends.

            D)   being outgoing and seeking social functions.



    95.   One of the more significant actions people can take to protect themselves from getting involved with  drugs is

            A)   promote positive self-esteem.

            B)   reduce stress.

            C)   choose friends/peer groups carefully.

            D)   become active in community drug-awareness programs.