1.   Alcohol is similar to other drugs in that

            A)   it can become an addiction.

            B)   its physiological effects can cause long-term damage.

            C)   it can impair short-term functioning.

            D)   all of the above



      2.   What percentage of Americans over the age of 12 drink alcohol?

            A)   14%

            B)   24%

            C)   44%

            D)   64%



      3.   Eight and a half percent of Americans are heavy drinkers. What percentage of all alcohol consumed in America is consumed by these heavy drinkers?

            A)   10%

            B)   30%

            C)   50%

            D)   75%



      4.   The process of fermentation is generally utilized in making

            A)   gin.

            B)   wine.

            C)   whiskey.

            D)   vodka.



      5.   The approximate concentration of alcohol in table wines is

            A)   3-6%.

            B)   6-8%.

            C)   9-14%.

            D)   20%.



      6.   Wines with the highest concentration of alcohol are called

            A)   concentrated.

            B)   fermented.

            C)   champagne.

            D)   fortified.



      7.   The beverage with the highest concentration of alcohol is

            A)   sherry.

            B)   wine.

            C)   ale.

            D)   brandy.



      8.   The proof value of an alcoholic beverage is

            A)   two times the percentage of alcohol in the beverage.

            B)   half the percentage of alcohol in the beverage.

            C)   equal to the percentage of alcohol in the beverage.

            D)   the percentage of blood volume that is alcohol.



      9.   A 110 proof beverage is _________% alcohol.

            A)   35

            B)   45

            C)   55

            D)   65



    10.   A standard drink contains about

            A)   0.6 ounce of alcohol.

            B)   1 ounce of alcohol.

            C)   1.5 ounces of alcohol.

            D)   2 ounces of alcohol.



    11.   Which of the following types of alcohol is safely consumable?

            A)   ethyl

            B)   methyl

            C)   isopropyl

            D)   butyl



    12.   Which of the following statements about alcohol is true?

            A)   The main site of alcohol metabolism is the large intestine.

            B)   All forms of alcohol are safe for consumption.

            C)   Eating food before drinking increases the body's rate of absorption of alcohol.

            D)   All alcohol consumed is eventually absorbed by your body.



    13.   Which of the following is true regarding the relationship between eating and alcohol consumption?

            A)   Eating slows alcohol's intoxicating effects in men more than it does in women.

            B)   Eating slows alcohol's intoxicating effects in women more than it does in men.

            C)   Eating reduces the amount of alcohol absorption in the small intestine.

            D)   Eating slows alcohol absorption.



    14.   Which of the following does NOT influence how long it takes for alcohol to be absorbed in the stomach?

            A)   carbonation

            B)   the time of day that alcohol is consumed

            C)   food in the stomach

            D)   the proof of the beverage



    15.   Adding carbonated beverages to alcohol

            A)   slows the absorption rate of alcohol, thereby decreasing the rate of impairment.

            B)   speeds up the absorption rate of alcohol, thereby increasing the rate of impairment.

            C)   has no effect on the absorption rate of alcohol, therefore having no effect on the rate of impairment.

            D)   prevents the absorption of alcohol, thereby eliminating risk of impairment.



    16.   The main site of alcohol metabolism is in the

            A)   small intestine.

            B)   stomach.

            C)   colon.

            D)   liver.



    17.   The measure of alcohol in the blood used to determine the level of intoxication is the

            A)   alcohol/blood displacement.

            B)   alcohol impairment measurement.

            C)   blood alcohol concentration.

            D)   blood alcohol ratio.



    18.   The most significant reason that women have higher measures of blood alcohol than men after ingesting the same amount of alcohol is that women have

            A)   lower blood volume.

            B)   higher percentage of body fat.

            C)   lower average weight.

            D)   less drinking experience.



    19.   Females usually become intoxicated more quickly than males because

            A)   they have a lower alcohol tolerance.

            B)   the stomach enzyme that metabolizes alcohol is less active in women than in men.

            C)   they have a higher body fat composition.

            D)   they metabolize more alcohol in the stomach.



    20.   Alcohol is metabolized

            A)   at the same rate in all people.

            B)   at a varied rate depending on individual characteristics.

            C)   more quickly when the individual is intoxicated.

            D)   at a constant rate within each person.



    21.   The rate of metabolism of alcohol

            A)   is faster in chronic drinkers than it is in occasional drinkers.

            B)   is faster in occasional drinkers than in chronic drinkers.

            C)   does not affect blood alcohol concentration.

            D)   is slower when a person is asleep.



    22.   Alcohol is classified as a/an

            A)   depressant.

            B)   opioid derivative.

            C)   narcotic.

            D)   stimulant.



    23.   Initial effects of alcohol include all of the following EXCEPT

            A)   relaxation.

            B)   lightheadedness.

            C)   sleepiness.

            D)   decreased inhibitions.



    24.   At higher blood concentrations of alcohol, people are LEAST likely to feel

            A)   angry.

            B)   jovial.

            C)   emotional.

            D)   sleepy.



    25.   A high blood alcohol concentration is most likely to increase

            A)   irritability.

            B)   intellectual function.

            C)   sociability.

            D)   coordination.



    26.   Which of the following behaviors is LEAST characteristic of an intoxicated person?

            A)   becomes sleepy

            B)   has improved problem-solving skills

            C)   becomes easily angered

            D)   cries easily



    27.   At what blood alcohol level are you likely to first feel "relaxed"?

            A)   <0.05

            B)   0.10

            C)   0.15

            D)   0.30



    28.   At what blood alcohol level are you likely to begin to experience emotional instability?

            A)   0.05

            B)   0.05-0.10

            C)   0.10-0.15

            D)   0.15-0.30



    29.   At what blood alcohol level are you likely to experience unsteadiness in walking and standing?

            A)   <0.05

            B)   0.05-0.10

            C)   0.10-0.15

            D)   0.20-0.30



    30.   At what blood alcohol level is pain perception altered?

            A)   0.05-0.10

            B)   0.10-0.15

            C)   0.15-0.30

            D)   >0.30



    31.   At what blood level is driving impaired?

            A)   <0.05

            B)   0.05-0.10

            C)   0.10-0.15

            D)   0.15-0.20



    32.   At what blood alcohol level could a person become unconscious?

            A)   0.10-0.15

            B)   0.20-0.25

            C)   0.30-0.35

            D)   0.40-0.45



    33.   The first effect of alcohol use is

            A)   reduction in motor function skills.

            B)   reduction in sensory function.

            C)   lightheadedness.

            D)   impaired speech.



    34.   Alcohol causes all of the following EXCEPT

            A)   fever.

            B)   skin flushes.

            C)   dilation of peripheral blood vessels.

            D)   increased sweating.



    35.   All of the following are symptoms of hangover EXCEPT

            A)   diarrhea.

            B)   nausea.

            C)   cough.

            D)   fatigue.



    36.   Hangover is thought to be caused by all of the following EXCEPT

            A)   dehydration.

            B)   excess activity while intoxicated.

            C)   products of alcohol breakdown.

            D)   hormonal effects.



    37.   Which one of the following best describes alcohol-induced sleep?

            A)   It is achieved with difficulty.

            B)   It is sound and deep.

            C)   It is frequently interrupted with awakenings.

            D)   It is usually refreshing.



    38.   Alcohol poisoning

            A)   occurs only when alcohol is mixed with other drugs.

            B)   is seldom associated with drinking games.

            C)   can be fatal.

            D)   is typically caused by drinking small amounts of alcohol over a period of several hours.



    39.   If you come in contact with a person who has been drinking and is unconscious, you should

            A)   leave the person alone to sleep it off.

            B)   wake the person and give him/her coffee.

            C)   place the person on his/her side and watch for breathing difficulties.

            D)   put the person in a cool place and help him/her wake up.



    40.   Which of the following is an appropriate way to deal with an alcohol emergency?

            A)   Talk to the person about his drinking problem.

            B)   Give the person coffee.

            C)   Make the person walk around.

            D)   If unconscious, place the person on his side with his knees up.



    41.   The connection between the amount of a drug consumed and the drug's effects is called the

            A)   therapeutic index.

            B)   multiple dose relationship.

            C)   prescription standard.

            D)   dose-response relationship.



    42.   Among college students, frequent binge drinkers are _____ times more likely to engage in unplanned sexual activity than non-binge drinkers.

            A)   2

            B)   5

            C)   7

            D)   10



    43.   What is the ratio of U.S. drivers who admit to having used alcohol or drugs within two hours of driving?

            A)   1 in 4

            B)   1 in 10

            C)   1 in 20

            D)   1 in 50



    44.   A person with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) above 0.14% will be _______________ times more likely to be involved in a fatal crash than a sober driver.

            A)   10

            B)   30

            C)   40

            D)   380



    45.   The most common legal BAC in developed countries is

            A)   .02%

            B)   .05%

            C)   .08%

            D)   .10%



    46.   Which of the following is a good strategy to follow if you suspect a driver is drunk

            A)   Stay close so you can read the license plate.

            B)   Honk at them and get them to stop.

            C)   Speed ahead of them so you can slow them down.

            D)   Maintain a safe distance and stay alert.



    47.   A disease of the liver caused by excessive and chronic drinking is

            A)   atherosclerosis of the liver.

            B)   hepatic sclerosis.

            C)   hepatic myopathy.

            D)   cirrhosis.



    48.   Which of the following is associated with cirrhosis of the liver?

            A)   destruction of digestive enzymes

            B)   accelerated liver function

            C)   increased metabolism of alcohol

            D)   replacement of liver cells with scar tissue



    49.   Which factors primarily determine susceptibility to cirrhosis of the liver?

            A)   genetics and employment status

            B)   environment and drinking behaviors

            C)   drinking behaviors and socioeconomic status

            D)   drinking behaviors and genetics



    50.   Which of the following diseases are alcoholics especially susceptible to?

            A)   HIV

            B)   emphysema

            C)   hepatitis C

            D)   meningitis



    51.   Which of the following statements about alcohol-related pancreatitis is true?

            A)   Like cirrhosis, alcoholic pancreatitis typically occurs after years of heavy drinking.

            B)   Alcoholic pancreatitis generally occurs in binge drinkers.

            C)   Jaundice is an early sign of pancreatitis.

            D)   Pancreatitis is an acute illness and does not develop into a chronic condition.



    52.   Overuse of alcohol commonly causes bleeding in the

            A)   gastrointestinal tract.

            B)   cerebrum.

            C)   lungs.

            D)   vas deferens.



    53.   Some alcoholics show a weakening of the heart muscle called

            A)   cardiac disintegration.

            B)   cardiac atrophy.

            C)   cardiac myopathy.

            D)   cirrhosis.



    54.   Cancers associated with alcohol use include cancers of the

            A)   throat, stomach, and breasts.

            B)   stomach, esophagus, and lungs.

            C)   liver, bones, and stomach.

            D)   pancreas, breasts, and bones.



    55.   Fetal alcohol syndrome is characterized by

            A)   elevated birth weight.

            B)   impaired mental growth.

            C)   deafness.

            D)   limb deformities.



    56.   An alcohol-related problem for children born to mothers who drink during pregnancy is

            A)   HIV.

            B)   COLD.

            C)   ARND.

            D)   DNA.



    57.   Drinking by the mother is risky for the fetus

            A)   during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy.

            B)   during the 19th to 24th weeks of pregnancy.

            C)   during the 25th to 36th weeks of pregnancy.

            D)   throughout the pregnancy.



    58.   Which of the following is the most accurate description of the safe level of alcohol consumption during pregnancy?

            A)   no drinking during the first trimester

            B)   one drink per week during the first trimester

            C)   one drink per day during pregnancy

            D)   No alcohol should be consumed during pregnancy.



    59.   The most alcohol an adult male can drink, provided he does so every day, without increasing his risk for the development of alcohol-related health problems is ___________ drink(s).

            A)   one

            B)   two

            C)   three

            D)   four



    60.   The most alcohol an adult female can drink, provided she does so every day, without increasing her risk for the development of alcohol-related health problems is ___________ drink(s).

            A)   one

            B)   two

            C)   three

            D)   four



    61.   Alcohol may positively affect the cardiovascular system by

            A)   reducing the risk of clot formation.

            B)   lowering blood pressure.

            C)   relaxing cardiac muscle tone.

            D)   stimulating cardiac muscle.



    62.   Cardiovascular benefits from moderate alcohol consumption may be due to

            A)   reduced stress on the heart muscle.

            B)   lower heart rate.

            C)   increased levels of HDL, a form of cholesterol.

            D)   sedation.



    63.   Which of the following statements is true concerning alcohol use

            A)   Women should drink 3 to 4 drinks a day.

            B)   Men can drink as much as they want as long as it is beer.

            C)   The liver is the only organ adversely affected by heavy drinking.

            D)   Any health benefits from alcohol are negated by heavy use.



    64.   Alcoholism is most appropriately equated with

            A)   alcohol abuse.

            B)   alcohol dependence.

            C)   alcohol withdrawal.

            D)   binge drinking.



    65.   Which of the following would probably NOT be a sign of impending alcohol abuse?

            A)   feeling uncomfortable when alcohol is not present

            B)   consuming alcohol in risky situations

            C)   drinking at unusual times

            D)   drinking moderate amounts with most evening meals



    66.   Binge drinking is highest among

            A)   alcoholics.

            B)   residents of fraternity and sorority houses.

            C)   residents of African Americans colleges.

            D)   high school students.



    67.   Negative consequences associated with binge drinking include

            A)   poor academic performance.

            B)   violence.

            C)   engaging in unplanned sex.

            D)   all of the above



    68.   Binge drinking is a difficult problem to solve because

            A)   many students have already experienced binge drinking in high school.

            B)   binge drinking on college campuses is not well documented.

            C)   negative drinking behaviors usually occur off campus.

            D)   little is known about the consequences of this type of drinking.



    69.   Data from recent studies on college age drinking indicate that

            A)   about half of all college students drink alcohol.

            B)   between 50% and 80% of all violence on college campuses is alcohol related.

            C)   alcohol use has a minor effect on college grades.

            D)   less than half of undergraduates have driven while intoxicated.



    70.   The number of binge drinkers who admit to having a drinking problem is about

            A)   1%.

            B)   5%.

            C)   8%.

            D)   10%.



    71.   Tolerance can be achieved by

            A)   alcoholics only.

            B)   all regular users of alcohol.

            C)   all users of alcohol.

            D)   individuals who have developed cirrhosis only.



    72.   Requiring more of a substance to get the same desired effect is known as

            A)   withdrawal.

            B)   tolerance.

            C)   antagonism.

            D)   inhibition.



    73.   Lowered sensitivity to a drug such that a given dose no longer produces the usual effect is called

            A)   tolerance.

            B)   withdrawal.

            C)   therapeutic index.

            D)   drug potentiation.



    74.   The unpleasant physical and mental state experienced when abstaining from alcohol after several days of heavy use is known as

            A)   withdrawal.

            B)   tolerance.

            C)   drug potentiation.

            D)   paranoia.



    75.   Which pattern is the most common adult pattern for excessive drinking?

            A)   regular daily intake of large amounts of alcohol

            B)   regular heavy drinking limited to weekends

            C)   long periods of sobriety interspersed with binges

            D)   heavy drinking limited to periods of stress



    76.   Which drinking pattern is most commonly followed by college students who drink alcohol?

            A)   regular daily intake of large amounts of alcohol

            B)   regular heavy drinking limited to weekends

            C)   long periods of abstinence interspersed with social drinking

            D)   daily heavy drinking



    77.   The most serious withdrawal symptom associated with alcoholism is

            A)   confusion.

            B)   paranoia.

            C)   seizures.

            D)   delirium tremens.



    78.   Alcoholic paranoia is characterized by

            A)   delusions.

            B)   hallucinations.

            C)   delirium tremens.

            D)   illusions.



    79.   Alcohol causes more serious social and psychological problems than

            A)   all substances except tobacco.

            B)   all substances except cocaine.

            C)   all substances except marijuana.

            D)   all substances combined.



    80.   Studies involving twins indicate that if one twin develops alcoholism the chance of the other twin developing alcoholism is

            A)   exactly the same for identical and fraternal twins.

            B)   two times higher for fraternal twins compared to identical twins.

            C)   four times higher for identical twins compared to the general population.

            D)   four times higher for fraternal twins compared to identical twins.



    81.   It is estimated that as many as _______________% of people with alcoholism overcome their drinking problems on their own.

            A)   5

            B)   10

            C)   25

            D)   40



    82.   Individuals with alcoholism who stop drinking on their own often do so because of

            A)   maturation.

            B)   an alcohol-related crisis.

            C)   new relationships.

            D)   the resolution of a problem.



    83.   One major problem in treating alcoholism is

            A)   developing a "buddy" system that doesn't reinforce drinking.

            B)   combining treatment methodologies that are compatible.

            C)   identifying which treatment strategy will be most effective.

            D)   achieving short-term success.



    84.   Which of the following statements about alcohol treatment is true?

            A)   Individuals with alcoholism must "hit bottom" before they can be helped.

            B)   The first step in the treatment of alcoholism is hospitalization.

            C)   Different alcohol treatment strategies work for different people.

            D)   It takes one person with alcoholism to understand and help another.



    85.   An alternative to traditional 12-step programs designed to help people in the early stages of alcohol problems is called

            A)   Alcoholics Anonymous

            B)   Moderation Management

            C)   Al-Anon

            D)   Abstinence Anonymous



    86.   Why did the Moderation Management alcohol treatment program come under criticism in 2000?

            A)   It falsified reports of successful alcohol management.

            B)   Its leadership embezzled money.

            C)   Its founder was involved in an alcohol related car crash.

            D)   It allows members to drink unlimited amounts of alcohol.



    87.   Which of the following statements about Antabuse is true?

            A)   It blocks the intoxicating effects of alcohol.

            B)   It changes attitudes toward drinking.

            C)   It decreases the pleasant effects of alcohol without making the person ill.

            D)   It causes a person to become ill when alcohol is ingested.



    88.   Which of the following statements about naltrexone is true?

            A)   It blocks the intoxicating effects of alcohol.

            B)   It decreases the desired effects of alcohol without making the person ill.

            C)   Its effectiveness is not related to concomitant use of psychosocial treatment.

            D)   It causes illness when alcohol is consumed.



    89.   The use of chemical substitutes in the treatment of alcoholism could

            A)   be more effective if higher doses were used.

            B)   lead to a dependency on the substance.

            C)   eventually replace the need for psychosocial treatment methods.

            D)   effectively treat alcoholism without requiring abstinence from alcohol.



    90.   Which of the following statements is most characteristic of alcoholism among American men?

            A)   It develops after age 50.

            B)   The period of development of alcoholism is of short duration.

            C)   There is a higher likelihood of a man becoming alcoholic in his early forties if he began to drink excessively in his twenties.

            D)   Development of alcoholism follows an episodic pattern subsequent to stress.



    91.   Which of the following statements describes a characteristic of alcoholism in women as compared to men?

            A)   Women tend to become alcoholic later in life.

            B)   Women who have alcoholism experience fewer physical complications.

            C)   Women develop alcoholism after more years of heavy drinking.

            D)   Women with alcoholism experience more binge drinking early in life.



    92.   Which of the following statements regarding male and female use of alcohol is true?

            A)   Women may have a higher biologic risk for alcoholism than do men.

            B)   Men customarily have a shorter history of alcoholism than do women.

            C)   Men with alcoholism are more likely to experience alcohol-related physical complications than are women with alcoholism.

            D)   Men develop alcoholism later in life than do women.



    93.   Which of the following statements regarding African American alcohol use is FALSE?

            A)   African Americans have a higher rate of alcohol-related problems than does the general population.

            B)   Black women are less likely to abstain from alcohol than are white women.

            C)   Urban black males have a higher rate of alcohol-related suicides than do urban white males.

            D)   All of the above are false.



    94.   Which of the following groups has rates of alcohol abuse higher than the national average?

            A)   African Americans

            B)   Asian Americans

            C)   Hispanic Americans

            D)   American Indians



    95.   Which of the following groups has a rate of alcoholism that is twice the national average?

            A)   African Americans

            B)   Asian Americans

            C)   Hispanic Americans

            D)   American Indians



    96.   Which of the following groups has alcohol-abuse problems that are lower than the national average?

            A)   European Americans

            B)   Hispanic Americans

            C)   Asian Americans

            D)   American Indians



    97.   Someone who, perhaps unknowingly, allows another to continue excessive use of alcohol is a/an

            A)   facilitator.

            B)   enabler.

            C)   reinforcer.

            D)   predisposer.



    98.   Attitudes toward drinking are often based on your

            A)   tolerance level for alcohol.

            B)   family background.

            C)   self-esteem.

            D)   level of education.



    99.   The LEAST common reason to drink, as reported by college students, is

            A)   to increase feelings of sociability.

            B)   to relieve tension.

            C)   to help concentration.

            D)   to reduce inhibitions.



  100.   The screening test that may help someone determine if they have a drinking problem is called

            A)   CAGE.

            B)   BIRD.

            C)   CALL.

            D)   BARS.



  101.   Eating before and while drinking

            A)   accelerates the peak blood alcohol concentration.

            B)   lowers peak blood alcohol concentration.

            C)   transfers absorption of alcohol to the small intestine.

            D)   prevents absorption of alcohol.



  102.   A responsible party host will

            A)   serve some nonalcoholic beverages.

            B)   serve food with alcohol.

            C)   stop serving alcohol an hour or more before people are scheduled to leave.

            D)   all of the above



  103.   SADD (Students Against Destructive Decisions) focuses on all of the following EXCEPT

            A)   providing lesson plans about drunk driving.

            B)   mobilizing a system of peer counseling.

            C)   advocating lower legal limits of intoxication.

            D)   promoting dialogue between parents and teens regarding drunk driving.