Review Sheet

Final Exam

Part I: Short Answer (40%)


You have 10 short answer questions worth 4 points each. The short answer questions will come in various forms such as: List three types of _____ ; Define and explain how three types of _____ operate; Explain what is meant by ______ ; In the video/case what was meant by _____? Accordingly, some answers will involve listing terms while other will require describing terms or concepts in either a few sentences or short paragraphs. You should also be able to apply them to videos and handouts discussed in class. In general, there will not be much overlap between the essay questions and the short answer questions.


Differences between managing in the public and private sector Leader follower organization (common organizational designs)
Federalism Bureaucracy (common organizational designs)
Categorical vs. Block Grants Teams (common organizational designs)
Different types of mandates Adhocracy/Matrix (common organizational designs)
Trends in federal-state relations Functions of communication
Internal & External accountability mechanisms (formal & informal) Directions of information flow
Budget deficit vs. debt Ways to communicate information
Pros and cons of different revenue sources Barriers to effective communication
Regressive vs. progressive taxes Functional vs. dysfunctional conflict
Horizontal vs. vertical equity Organizational culture
Rational planning or decision-making model Creating and sustaining an organization's culture
Assumptions of the rational model Ways employees learn an organization's culture
Strengths and weaknesses of the rational model Motivation
Bounded rationality Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Incrementalism McGregor’s Theory X and Y
Common flaws in decision making (psychological problems) Hertzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory
Group decision-making techniques Goal-setting theory
When to use group decision making Reinforcement theory
Strengths and weaknesses of group decision making


Work specialization Leadership trait theories
Departmentalization Leadership styles –situational leadership theories
Chain of command Transactional vs. transformational leaders
Span of control Leadership vs. power
Centralization vs. decentralization Sources of power

Part II: Essay Questions (60%)


You will have to answer three of the questions below (20 points each). Each answer should clearly address all aspects of the question. You should define all key terms/concepts used in your answer. You should also support your answer using examples from books, lectures, class notes, videos, or handouts whenever possible.
1)  Describe the major trends if federal state relations over the last 200 years.  In your answer, be sure to address the following: 1) has the trend been towards increased centralization (i.e., greater federal control) or decentralization of federal authority (i.e., more state control); 2) what are the causes of increased centralization/decentralization; 3) are state and local governments in a better position to take on additional responsibilities today; and finally, 4) explain whether you think the trend towards centralization or decentralization will continue into the future.  Why or why not?
2)  Imagine that a foreign exchange student has come to live with you and she is unfamiliar with how our federal system operates.  To her it seems clumsy and inefficient.  She doesn’t understand why the constitution doesn’t give all of the power to either the federal government or to state/local governments.  Write an essay defending the merits of the U.S. federal system and how it enhances democratic values.  In essay form, explain to her what federalism is and how it developed in the United States over the last 200 years.  Be sure to discuss how the relationship between the federal and state governments has changed.  Speculate about where the current trend seems to be heading and why you think that is the case.  She also wants to know how different ideas about federalism influence politics in the United States.  Provide some examples of how different ideas about federalism influence conservative and liberal policy solutions.  
3) Your friend is a management major in the Business school.  One night while you and your friend were having a few drinks, you begin to have a discussion about whether it is easier to manage in the private or public sector.  Your friend insisted that there were no substantive differences between managing in the private or public sector.  Do you agree?  Write an essay which explains your position.  In your answer, be sure to discuss at least 4 frequently identified differences between managing in the public and private sector.  Do you think these differences are important?  Why?  In formulating your answer be sure to explain why you think it is easier, harder, or just different managing in the private as compared to the public sector? 
4Imagine you have been appointed by the Mayor to lead an effort to revise the comprehensive land use plan for Wilmington.  You will be creating several advisory committees and lots of individual and group decisions will have to be made.  At the initial organizational meeting one of the things you want to discuss with those involved in the planning effort is to be aware that individuals and groups tend to experience psychological common problems when forced to make decisions.  Explain in essay form four of the common psychological problems experienced by individuals and groups when making decisions.  Be sure to provide examples of each problem to support your answer.  Be sure to identify the problems you think are most likely to occur and the steps you can take to avoid these problems.
5) The readings, cases, class discussion, and lecture notes all highlight the importance of effective communication.  It is also clear that there are numerous barriers to effective communication.  Describe five barriers to effective communication described in the lecture notes and use specific examples from the Waco case reading or video to provide examples of each barrier (i.e., communication problem). 
6) Write an essay explaining why organizational culture is important to organizations.  In your essay, be sure to describe the following: what are the different ways that organizational culture is established; how do you sustain organizational culture; and, how do new employees learn organizational culture.
7Imagine you work in the Governor’s office in North Carolina (He’s a Democrat).  You are formulating your budget submission for next year and need to raise some additional revenue to pay for some new education programs targeted at elementary school children.  The Governor has asked you to identify 4 potential revenue sources and wants you to describe the positive and negative aspects of each.  What factors would you want to consider when evaluating the four potential revenue sources?  Be sure to identify the revenue source(s) which you think is most appropriate based on these factors.  Be sure to define all key terms for the Governor and you have heard that he likes lots of examples so be sure to use them in your answer.
8) In class we discussed three early theories (Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, McGregor’s Theory X and Y, and Hertzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory) of what motivates individuals.  We also briefly discussed goal-setting theory and reinforcement theory in class.  Briefly discuss 3 of the 5 theories and describe how each of them could be used to explain what motivates your performance as a college student.  Which theory(s) do you feel is the most accurate portrayal of what motivates your performance in PLS 308?  If you are not motivated to perform, why not?  How could these theories be used to describe your lack of motivation.  Make sure to provide examples to support your answer.

Shaded terms and questions will not be on the exam

Back to Mark T. Imperial's Homepage

Page last modified 11/17/05

Report problems to imperialm@uncw.edu