Frederick Bingham Curriculum Vitae

Center for Marine Science

Department of Physics & Physical Oceanography

University of North Carolina at Wilmington

601 S. College Rd.

Wilmington, NC 28403-5928

Phone: (910)962-2383, Fax (910)962-2410


orcid: 0000-0001-9848-7141

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B.A. in Physics, Oberlin College


Ph.D. in Oceanography

University of California, San Diego


Masters of Science, Computer Science and Information Systems

University of North Carolina Wilmington



Foreign Postdoctoral Fellow

Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan


Assistant Researcher

University of Hawaii at Manoa


Assistant Professor, Department of Physics

University of North Carolina at Wilmington


Associate Professor

Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography

University of North Carolina at Wilmington


Visiting Associate Professor

Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan



Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography

University of North Carolina at Wilmington

Professional Affiliations

American Geophysical Union, The Oceanography Society, Oceanographic Society of Japan; European Geosciences Union


Katsura, S., Sprintall, J. and F. M. Bingham. Upper Ocean Stratification in the Eastern Pacific during the SPURS-2 Field Campaign. Submitted to Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans. November 2020.

Bingham, F. M., S. Brodnitz and L. Yu (2021). Sea Surface Salinity Seasonal Variability in the Tropics from Satellites, Gridded in situ Products and Mooring Observations. Remote Sensing 13(1), 110; doi:10.3390/rs13010110.

Yu, L., F. M. Bingham, T. Lee, E. Dinnat, S. Fournier, O. Melnichenko and W. Tang. Revisiting the Global Patterns of Seasonal Cycle in Sea Surface Salinity. Submitted to Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans. September 2020.

Bingham, F. M., Z. Li, S. Katsura, J. Sprintall (2020). Barrier Layers in a High-resolution Model in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans, 125, e2020JC016643. DOI:10.1029/2020JC016643.

Bingham, F. M. and Z. Li (2020). Spatial Scales of Sea Surface Salinity Subfootprint Variability in the SPURS Regions. Remote Sensing, 12, 3996; doi:10.3390/rs12233996

Yu, L., Josey, S.A., Bingham, F.M. and Lee, T. (2020), Intensification of the global water cycle and evidence from ocean salinity: a synthesis review. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.. doi:10.1111/nyas.14354

Bingham, F. M. (2019) Subfootprint variability of sea surface salinity observed during the SPURS-1 and SPURS-2 field campaigns. Remote Sensing, 11(22), 2689; DOI:10.3390/rs11222689

D’Addezio, J., Bingham, F.M. and G. Jacobs (2019) Sea Surface Salinity Subfootprint Variability Estimates from Regional High-Resolution Model Simulations. Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23, 111365, DOI:10.1016/j.rse.2019.111365.

Li, Z., F.M. Bingham, and P.P. Li. (2019). Multiscale simulation, data assimilation, and forecasting in support of the SPURS-2 field campaign. Oceanography 32(2):134–141, DOI:10.5670/oceanog.2019.221

Bingham, F.M., V. Tsontos, A. deCharon, C.J. Lauter, and L. Taylor. (2019). The SPURS-2 eastern tropical Pacific field campaign data collection. Oceanography 32(2):142–149, DOI:10.5670/oceanog.2019.222

Melnichenko, O., P. Hacker, F.M. Bingham, and T. Lee. (2019). Patterns of SSS variability in the eastern tropical Pacific: Intraseasonal to interannual timescales from seven years of NASA satellite data. Oceanography 32(2):20–29, DOI:/10.5670/oceanog.2019.208

Bingham, F. M., J. Busecke and A. Gordon (2019) Variability of the South Pacific Subtropical Surface Salinity Maximum. Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans, 124, doi:10.1029/2018JC014598.

Hasson, A., Farrar, J. T., Boutin, J., Bingham, F., & Lee, T. (2019). Intraseasonal variability of surface salinity in the eastern tropical Pacific associated with mesoscale eddies. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 2861– 2875. DOI:10.1029/2018JC014175

Bingham, F. M. and T. Lee (2017) Space and time scales of sea surface salinity and freshwater forcing variability in the global ocean (60S-60N). Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans.

Mannshardt, E., K. Sucic, M. Fuentes and F. M. Bingham (2015) Comparison of Distributional Statistics of Aquarius and Argo Sea Surface Salinity Measurements. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 33(1), 103-118, DOI:10.1175/JTECH-D-15-0068.1.

Bingham, F. M., P. Li, Z. Li, Q. Vu and Y. Chao (2015) Data Management Support for the SPURS Atlantic Field Campaign. Oceanography 28(1):46–55,

Gordon, A.L., C. Giulivi, J. Busecke and F.M. Bingham (2015) Differences between the Subtropical Surface Salinity Patterns. Oceanography 28(1):32–39,

SPURS-2 Planning Group (2015) From Salty to Fresh—Salinity Processes in the Upper-ocean Regional Study-2 (SPURS-2): Diagnosing the Physics of a Rainfall-Dominated Salinity Minimum. Oceanography 28(1):150–159,

Busecke, J., Z. Li, F. M. Bingham, A. L. Gordon and J. Font (2014) Subtropical surface layer salinity budget and the role of mesoscale turbulence. Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009715.

Bingham, F. M., J. Busecke, A. L. Gordon, C. Giulivi and Z. Li (2014) The North Atlantic Subtropical Surface Salinity Maximum as Observed by Aquarius. JGR-Oceans, DOI:10.1002/2014JC009825.

D'Addezio, J. M., and F. M. Bingham (2014) A Subtropical North Atlantic Regional Atmospheric Moisture Budget. Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans, DOI:10.1002/2014JC01030

Bingham, F. M. (2013) Beautiful Science: Worth a Visit. The Physics Teacher, 51, 159, doi:10.1119/1.4792012.

Bingham, F. M. (2013) Descriptive Physical Oceanography (6th Edition). Bulletin American Meteorological Society, 94, 247-249. (Book review)

Bingham, F. M., G. R. Foltz and M. J. McPhaden (2012) Characteristics of the Seasonal Cycle of Surface Layer Salinity in the Global Ocean. Ocean Sci., 8, 915-929, doi:10.5194/os-8-915-2012

Bingham, F. M., G. Foltz, and M. McPhaden (2010) Seasonal Cycles of Mixed Layer Salinity and Evaporation Minus Precipitation in the Pacific Ocean. Ocean Sci., 6, 775-787, doi:10.5194/os-6-775-2010

Sethuram, A., E. Patterson, K. Ricanek, F. Bingham (2009) The Aging Face: Developments in AAM Based Synthetic Age Progression. Submitted to CAIP 2009: The 13th International Conference on Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns.

Patterson, E., A. Sethuram, K. Ricanek and F. Bingham (2009) Improvements in Active Appearance Model Based Synthetic Age Progression for Adult Aging. Submitted to BTAS 2009, IEEE Third International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems.

Bingham, F., and T. Suga (2006) Distributions of mixed layer properties in North Pacific water mass formation areas: comparison of Argo floats and World Ocean Atlas 2001. Ocean Science, 2, 61-70, doi:10.5194/os-2-61-2006.

Grodsky S. A., J. A. Carton, F. M. Bingham (2006) Low frequency variation of sea surface salinity in the tropical Atlantic, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L14604, doi:10.1029/2006GL026426.

Bingham, F. (2006) Physical response of the coastal ocean to Hurricane Isabel near landfall. Ocean Science, 3, 159-171, doi:10.5194/os-3-159-2007.

Blanton, Brian O.; Werner, Francisco E.; Seim, Harvey E.; Luettich, Richard A., Jr.; Lynch, Daniel R.; Smith, Keston W.; Voulgaris, George; Bingham, Frederick M.; Way, Francis (2004) Barotropic tides in the South Atlantic Bight. J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 109, No. C12, C12024, doi:10.1029/2004JC002455.

Quattrini, A. M., D. G. Lindquist, F. M. Bingham, T. E. Lankford and J. J. Govoni (2005) Distributions of larval Fishes among Water Masses in Onslow Bay, North Carolina: Implications for Cross-shelf Exchange. Fisheries Oceanography,14:3, 1-19, 10.1111/j.1365-2419.2005.00344.x

Bingham, F. M., S. D. Howden and C. J. Koblinsky (2002) Sea Surface Salinity measurements in the Historical Database. Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans, 107, doi:10.1029/2000jc000767

Bingham, F. M., T. Suga, and K. Hanawa (2002) The Origin of Waters Observed along 137°E. Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans, 107, doi:10.1029/2000jc000722

Cahoon, L.B., M.A. Mallin, F.M. Bingham, S.A. Kissling, and J.E. Nearhoof (2001) Monitoring the Coastal Ocean: Responses to Hurricane Floyd, pp. 247-253 in Maiolo, J.R., J.C. Whitehead, M. McGee, L. King, J. Johnson, and H. Stone, eds., “Facing Our Future: Hurricane Floyd and Recovery in the Coastal Plain”, Coastal Carolina Press, Wilmington, NC.

Bingham, F., T. Suga, and K. Hanawa (1999) The Origin of Waters Observed along 137°E. International WOCE Newsletter, # 36, 26-31

Bingham, F., T. Suga, and K. Hanawa (1999) The Origin of Waters Observed along 137°E. Proceedings of the conference on Ocean Observing System for Climate. October, 1999.

Lukas, R., F. Santiago-Mandujano, F. Bingham and A. Mantyla (2001) Cold Bottom Water Events Observed in the Hawaii Ocean Time-series: Implications for Vertical Mixing. Deep-Sea Research I, 48(4), 995-1022, doi:10.1016/S0967-0637(00)00078-9.

Bingham, F. (1998) Evidence for the Existence of a North Hawaiian Ridge Current. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 28, 991-998, doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1998)028<0991:EFTEOA>2.0.CO;2.

Lindstrom, E. L., F. M. Bingham, J. Kindle and S. Wijffels (1998) Preface. Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans, 103(C6), 12,987, doi:10.1029/98JC01611.

Bingham, F. and R. Lukas (1996) Seasonal Cycles of Temperature, Salinity and Dissolved Oxygen Observed in the Hawaii Ocean Time-series. Deep-Sea Research II, 43, 199-213, doi:10.1016/0967-0645(95)00090-9.

Bingham, F. and L. Talley (1995) Comments on "The Kuroshio Structure and Transport Estimated by the Inverse Method". Journal of Physical Oceaongraphy, 25, 2179, doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(1995)025<2179:COKSAT>2.0.CO;2.

Bingham, F. and R. Lukas (1995) The Distribution of Intermediate Water in the Western Equatorial Pacific during January/February, 1986. Deep-Sea Research I, 42, 1545-1574 doi:10.1016/0967-0637(95)00064-D.

Tupas, L., F. Santiago-Mandujano, D. Hebel, E. Firing, F. Bingham, R. Lukas, D. Karl (1994) Hawaii Ocean Time-series Program Data Report 5. 1993. School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii, 156 pp.

Fine, R., R. Lukas, F. Bingham, M. Warner and R. Gammon (1994) The Western Equatorial Pacific: a Water Mass Cross Roads. Journal of Geophysical Research., 99, 25,063-25,080, doi:10.1029/94JC02277.

Bingham, F. and R. Lukas (1994) The Southward Intrusion of North Pacific Intermediate Water along the Mindanao Coast. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 24, 141-154, doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1994)024<0141:TSIONP>2.0.CO;2.

Bingham, F., T. Suga and K. Hanawa (1992) Comparison of Upper Ocean Thermal Conditions in the Western North Pacific between two Pentads: 1938-42 and 1978-82. Journal of Oceanography, 48, 405-425, doi:10.1007/BF02234018

Bingham, F. (1992) The Formation and Spreading of Subtropical Mode Water in the North Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97, 11177-11189, doi:10.1029/92JC01001

Bingham, F. (1992) Circulation in a Jet Being Cooled at the Surface. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 22, 306-313, doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1992)022<0306:CIAJBC>2.0.CO;2.

Bingham, F. and L. Talley (1991) Estimates of Kuroshio Transport Using an Inverse Technique. Deep-Sea Research, 38(Suppl. 1), S21-S43, doi:10.1016/S0198-0149(12)80003-3

Bingham, F. (1990) Circulation and Water Mass Transformation as Related to the Formation of Subtropical Mode Water in the North Pacific. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, San Diego, 212 pp.

Grant Funding

Satellite Sea Surface Salinity Sampling Error. NASA Ocean Salinity Science Team. PI Severine Fournier, NASA/JPL, August 2019. $155,028

S-MODE Participation, submitted March 2019. From NASA AMES. $254,994.

SPURS-IS Supplement. From Jet Propulsion Laboratory. $38,000.

Subfootprint Variance and Surface Salinity Extreme Values as Indicators of Air-sea Interaction. NASA Ocean Salinity Science Team. Co-investigator: Oksana Chkrebtii, Ohio State University. $373,167

Salinity Stratification in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and its Influence on Air-sea Interaction. Submitted to NASA SPURS-2 Synthesis, May 2018. PI: Janet Sprintall. Proposal was submitted from UC San Diego and no funds were requested for UNCW.

Multi-scale Data Assimilation, Forecasting and Modeling in Support of SPURS-2. From NASA. Co-Is Z. Li and P. Li, NASA JPL. $100,500.

The SPURS-2 Information System (SPURS-IS). From NASA. Co-I's, Z. Li and P. Li, NASA JPL. $426,892.

SPURS Field Campaign Analysis Phase. From NASA. PI: T. Farrar (WHOI). $50,000 (UNCW portion). 1/1/2014-6/30/2015.

The SPURS Data Management System. From NASA. Co-Is, Yi Chao and Peggy Li, NASA JPL. $342,042. 1/1/2011 – 12/31/2014.

Statistical Evaluation of Sea Surface Salinity from Aquarius. From NASA. Co-I, Montserrat Fuentes, NCSU. $210918. 10/1/2009 – 9/30/2012.

SE Atlantic Marine Monitoring and Prediction Center: 2002 Coastal Ocean Rsearch and Monitoring Program. From NOAA. Multiple co-I's. 920,900. 2002-2003.

SE Atlantic Marine Monitoring and Prediction Center: 2001 Coastal Ocean Rsearch and Monitoring Program. From NOAA. Multiple co-I's. 925,000. 2001-2002.

Coastal Ocean Monitoring in the South Atlantic Bight. From NOAA. Multiple co-I's. $730,000. 1999-2000.

Coupling of Gulf Stream Water Intrusions with Postlarval Settlement of Snapper-Grouper and Lobster at a Midshelf Reef, Onslow Bay, NC. From NURP/NOAA. Co-I David Lindquist, UNCW. $27997. 2000.

Short-term Invitation Fellowship. From Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, for travel and subsistence during fellowship. 1999.

Water Mass Variations in the Western Equatorial Pacific. From NSF for $113,000. 1994-1996.

The Cape Hatteras Gulf Stream Front as an Aggregator of the Pelagic Stages of Tuna and Mackerel: Sampling with Light-traps Across the Frontal Zone. From NOAA/NURP for $2500. 1996.

Coupling of Gulf Stream Intrusions and Spring-summer Arrival of Presettlement Stages of Snapper-Grouper Complex Species at a Midshelf reef, Southern Onslow Bay, North Carolina. From NOAA/CIFO for $24,961. 1995-1996.

The Structure and Dynamics of the Current Systems North of the Hawaiian Ridge. From NSF for $229,000. Co-I Bo Qiu, U. Hawaii. 1994-1997.

The Hawaii Ocean Time-series: WOCE Component. From NSF for $1,690,674. Co-I Roger Lukas, U. Hawaii. 1994-1997.