Welcome to BIO 495 - Origins of Eukaryotes

Eukaryotes possess nuclei and chromosomes, complex endomembrane and cytoskeletal systems, and organelles such as mitochondria and plastids not found in prokaryotes.  The evolution of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic ancestors is unarguably one of the seminal evolutionary events in Earth’s biological history.  This course explores current theories, genetic, and other kinds of data seeking to unravel the origins of eukaryotic cells approximately 2-1.5 billion years ago.

Course Materials


Exam 1 Grades

Exam 2 Grades