106- E, King Hall 

Office Ph : 395-3356

E-mail: applefieldj@ 

Course Description

This course is designed to develop students' capabilities in the planning processes of teaching and in the fundamental principles and skills of classroom evaluation. A systems approach to the design and development of instruction and to student evaluation will be taught. Emphasis is placed on developing conceptual understanding and problem solving skills associated with the mental activities that comprise the work of teachers when they make preparations to teach and when they plan for the evaluation of their students' learning. These activities include instructional analysis, design and delivery, evaluation, reflection and revision. Some of the specific skills to be learned are: analyzing and organizing bodies of content, classifying types of learning, writing performance objectives, conducting learner and instructional task analyses, making effective media choices, incorporating essential events of instruction into in preparing instructional plans that incorporate critical events of instruction and creating valid and reliable means of classroom assessment.

Course Prerequisite: Admission to School of Education. Completion of Edn 203 is desirable.

Major Course Goals

1. Understands the meaning instructional systems design and the rationale for a systematic approach to the design of instruction.

2. Values a systematic approach to the design of instruction.

3. Knows the components of a generic instructional design model and the relationships among the components.

4. Shows ability to analyze subskills of learning outcomes and to identify important learner characteristics and their relevance to instructional strategies.

5. Can make informed decisions regarding the sequencing of instruction.

6. Can make informed decisions regarding selection of instructional strategies and instructional activities.

7. Can make informed decisions regarding selection of media and instructional materials for enhancing instruction.

8. Shows ability to devise instructional plans and lesson plans.

9. Knows how to prepare instruction characterized by congruence among objectives, instruction and evaluation.

10. Knows the goals and major objectives of the North Carolina curriculum in his/her specialty.

11. Understands the significance of revision in a systems approach to the design and delivery of instruction.

12. Understands current critiques of the systems approach to the design and delivery of instruction.

13. Understands constructivist views of learning and their application to the design of instruction.

14. Generates tools of assessment that are appropriately matched to different types of learning.

15. Generates tools of assessment that reflect ability to make adaptations for one's learners.

16. Demonstrates ability to use paper and pencil and performance based means of assessment and understands differences between traditional and alternative approaches to assessment.

17. Develops awareness of commonly used technologies for instruction. Uses technology in assignments and for communication.

Major Course Objectives

1. When asked to define concepts of and explain the value of instructional design principles, learner states the meaning of instructional design and a rationale for a systems approach to ID.

2. When asked to define concepts of instructional design and describe relationships pertinent to this field, states definitions and explains relationships among components of a generic model of ID.

3. Given statements of learner performance, learner classifies each performance according to the Gagne's 5 domains of learning and 5 types of intellectual skills.

4. Given descriptions of teaching, learner classifies intended learning and the condition of learning (external or internal) most likely accomplished by the teacher action. Demonstrates application of appropriate conditions of learning for all types of learning.

5. Given incompletely stated objectives commonly seen or test items, learner demonstrates rules for writing performance objectives by rewriting the objectives using all 5 components.

6. Given an concept, rule or problem solving objective, learner generates a learning task analysis and/or a procedural task analysis as appropriate using appropriate format and logical relationships.

7. After selecting a grade and class for course design and asked to identify the essential characteristics of the student group, learner generates a learner analysis by describing the most likely dimensions of students' cognitive, social and attitudinal and academic behavior that are relevant for instructional decisions.

8. When given descriptions of objectives and assessment procedures, learner classifies each procedure as valid or invalid for specified objectives by marking the desired space and explaining one's decision.

9. After selecting objectives for a unit of instruction, learner generates a valid assessment by producing an appropriate instrument or procedure for the objectives. Criteria for valid item types construction and or procedures must be demonstrated.

10. Classifies a set of instructional activities according to the event of instruction being used.

11. When presented with various objectives involving different types of learning and ages of learners, demonstrates rules for making media choices by selecting suitable media and giving rationale for choice based on learner and learning task.

12. When presented with an objective, generates a lesson by writing a plan for instruction incorporating all of Gagne's 9 events of instruction.

13. Given test score data from standardized tests and from classroom tests, learner will demonstrate rules for interpreting the quantitative data by writing explanation of the student performances. Principles and their related concepts to be measured included mean, standard deviation, standard error of measurement, percentile, z-score, t-score, stanine and grade equivalent score.

14. Given target objectives for a unit of instruction, learner demonstrates assessment design by producing a table of specifications to guide development of an instrument, performance of procedure to measure achievement of intended learning outcomes for the selected unit.

Course Texts

Required Texts :

Gagne, R. M., & Driscoll, M. P. (1988). Essentials of learning for instruction (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Reiser, R. A., & Dick, W. (1996). Planning instruction: A guide for teachers (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Texts on Reserve :

Airasian, P. W. (1994). Classroom assessment (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Dick, W., and Carey, L. (1985). The systematic design of instruction (2nd ed.). Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Co.

Gagne, R. M., Briggs, L. J. , & Wager, W. W. (1994). Principles of instructional design. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Wager, W. W., Applefield, J. M., Earle, R. S., and Dempsey, J. V. (1990). Learner's guide to accompany principles of instructional design. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Articles on Reserve:

Cizek, G. J. (1991). Innovation or enervation? Performance assessment in perspective. Phi Delta Kappan, 72, 695-699.

Dick, W. (1991). An instructional designer's view of constructivism. Educational Technology, 31(5),41-44.

Duffy, T. M., and Jonassen, D. H. (1991). Constructivism: New implications for instructional technology? Educational Technology, 31(5), 7-12.

Harris, K., & Graham, S. 1996). Memo to constructivists: Skills count, too. Educational Leadership, 53(5), 26-29

Peha, J. M. (1995). How K-12 teachers are using computer networks. Educational Leadership, 23(2), 18-25.

Prawat, R. S. (1992). From individual differences to learning communities - our changing focus. Educational Leadership, 49 (7), 9-13.

Sternberg, R. J. (1994). Allowing for thinking styles. Educational Leadership, Nov., 36-40.

Van Dusen, L. M., & Worthan, B. R. (1995). Can integrated instructional technology transform the classroom. Educational Leadership, 23(2), 28-33.

Wiggins, G. (1989). A true test: Toward more authentic and equitable assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 70, 703-713.


Students are expected to attend all classes, and to be prepared for each class. Absences beyond 4 will result in the lowering of one's final grade, one grade category for each additional absence (B+ to B, etc.). Tests and assignments are expected to be taken/completed as scheduled. Please speak with your instructor about unavoidable conflicts before you miss class. Any variance from scheduled dates for tests or assignments should be arranged as far in advance as possible.

Academic Honesty

It is important for all members of a university community to value academic integrity and essential that academic honesty be observed. The academic honor code of the University must be strictly adhered to at all times. You must carefully distinguish between group assignments and individual assignments. And you must be particularly careful not to misrepresent the work of others as your own. The work that you do outside of class in this course must be your work. Students should read the Undergraduate Academic Honor Code found in the 1998-1999 Student Handbook or ask the instructor if you have any questions concerning the appropriateness of any academic behavior.

Evaluation and Grading

Evaluation will be based on students' performance on three tests (50 pts each), which may be retaken once; a comprehensive final exam (60 pts); graded assignments (30 pts) a group presentation (40 pts) and a project (100 pts) and class participation (20 pts). Grades will be assigned on the basis of the percentage of points accumulated for the graded portions of the course. The total number of points that can be accumulated is 400 points.

Final grades will be assigned on the basis of the percentage of points accumulated, using the following percentage scale:

A = 92% and above ---- 368 pts and above

A- = 90% - 91% ---- 360-367 pts

B+ = 88% - 89% ---- 352-359 pts

B = 82% - 87% ---- 328-351 pts

B- = 80% - 81% ---- 320-327 pts

C+ = 78% - 79% ---- 312-319 pts

C = 72% - 77% ---- 288-311 pts

C- = 70% - 71% ---- 280-287 pts

D = 60% - 69% ---- 240-279 pts

F = less than 60% ---- less than 240 pts

At any time in the semester, you may compute your current grade by determining the percentage of points that you have accumulated out of the total number of possible points that could have been earned for the completed, graded portions of the course. For example, after the first two tests, if your combined test scores equal 88 (88 out of 100 pts), then your percentage grade would be 88%, which is a 'B+' .

Course Outline

Course introduction: Goals of Course; The Planning R & D*: Ch 1

Role of Teachers

Planning Instruction Systematically: Instructional R & D: Ch 1

Design: Concepts and Models

Learning Theory: Foundations of ID - Behaviorism G & D*: Ch 1

Learning Theory: Cog. View (Information Processing) G & D: Ch 2

Learning Theory: Cog. View (Constructivist) Duffy & Jonassen; Harris & Graham

The Outcomes of Learning: Gagne's Taxonomy R & D: Ch 3

Verbal Information, Motor Skills, Attitudes G & D: Ch 3 & 5

Intellectual Skills and Cognitive Strategies G & D: Ch 3 & 5

Conditions of Learning for Types of Learning G & D: Ch 3 &5


Conditions of Learning continued G & D: Ch 3 &5

Review for Test


Learner Analysis Gagne, Briggs, Wager: Ch 6

Continue Learner Analysis G & D: Ch 4

Continue Learner Analysis Handout; Sternberg

Performance Objectives R & D: Ch 3; Handout

Continue Performance Objectives "

Continue Performance Objectives Handout "

Continue Performance Objectives "

Task Analysis Gagne, Briggs, Wager

Ch 8; Handout

 Assessing Learning Outcomes Airasian Chs 1,2,4

R & D: Ch 6

Continue Assessment "


 Objective Tests Airasian, Ch 6, 8

Continue Objective Tests " "

Performance Measures Airasian, Ch 8; Cizek

Continue Performance Measures " "

Authentic Assessment Wiggins

Events of Instruction G & D: Chs 6 & 8

R & D: Ch 4

Lesson Planning Using Events of Instruction Handout

Continue Events of Instruction G & D: Chs 6 & 8

Easter Break

Lesson Planning Cont. G & D: Chs 6 & 8


Delivering Instruction G & D: Ch 8

R & D: Ch 7

Continue Delivering Instruction " "

Learner Strategies G & D: Ch 7

Continue Learner Strategies " "

Choosing Instructional Media R & D: Ch 5

Continue Instructional Media " "

Group Presentations Demonstrating Design

and Delivery of Instruction (Mini-Lesson)

Group Presentations Continued

Group Presentations Continued

Revising Instruction; Review R & D: Ch 8

Final Exam: 3-6pm

G & D = Gagne and Driscoll; R & D = Reiser & Dick